Wagner, Richard

COMPOSER (GERMANY)
BORN 22 May 1813, Leipzig, Sachsen - DIED 13 Feb 1883, Venezia, Veneto: Palazzo Vendramin
BIRTH NAME Wagner, Wilhelm Richard
CAUSE OF DEATH heart failure
GRAVE LOCATION Bayreuth, Bayern: Villa 'Wahnfried' (in the garden)

Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig. The man who was officially his father, a clerk at the police court, died when he was very young. His mother soon married the painter Ludwig Geyer and possibly he was Wagner's real father. When he was seven the family moved to Dresden, where he received his first musical education at the Dresdner Kreuzschule. Geyer died when Wagner was only eight years old, but he had already inspired a taste for art in the boy.

Under the influence of Goethe and Shakespeare he wrote the tragedy "Leubald und Adelaide" at a very young age. He started a series of diaries around the age of twenty, already convinced of his own genius and his future fame. After attending performances of works by Weber and Beethoven he switched to music. In April 1829 he saw Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient as Leonore in Beethoven's "Fidelio" and he was deeply impressed.

He entered Leipzig University in 1831. After he obtained an engagement as choir director at the Würzburg theatre he started his opera "Die Feen" and he finished it in 1834. In 1836 he married the singer Minna Planer. He went to Königsberg with her to become musical director at the theatre, although at the time Minna was probably more wanted as a leading actress than Wagner was wanted himself. Soon afterwards the theatre went bankrupt and Wagner was left behind without payment. An engagement in Riga followed, but he spent too much money and in 1839 he had to flee from his creditors.

Wagner tried to find himself a place in the world of opera in Paris (1839-1842). Although he became friendly with the great Meyerbeer he failed and almost starved to death from poverty. Even so he finished his opera "Rienzi" and when it was performed in Dresden on October 20th, 1842 (with Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient singing) it was an overnight success. In 1843 it was followed by "Der Fliegende Hollander" ("The Flying Dutchman") and in that same year he was appointed Kapellmeister in Dresden.

Although Wagner had a stable income now, his debts rose to enormous heights because he continued to live far beyond his means. In his Dresden years he completed "Tannhäuser" (first performed on 19 Oct 1845) and "Lohengrin". The latter was rejected by the opera in Dresden and was first staged in Weimar in 1850. In 1848 he supported the revolution that was rising in Saxony. The revolution failed and where people like Bakunin were captured, Wagner managed to flee to Jena, to his friend Franz Liszt who had supported his work from an early stage. He had first met Liszt in 1841 in Paris. Wagner initially was little interested in Liszt's compositions, but at a certain point he realized that there was much depth in them. From that point the men were always eager to hear each other's compositions, even when their friendship became clouded by the constant demands of Wagner and by his affair with Liszt's daughter Cosima.

Wagner remained in exile until 1860 and during this time Lohengrin turned into a huge success. In 1850 in Zurich he wrote an anti-semitic piece on Jewishness in music which was partly an attack on Meyerbeer. In 1853 he first met Cosima Liszt, the young daughter of Franz Liszt. In Zürich he was supported by Mathilde and Otto Wesendonck and he lived in a cottage behind their villa near Lake Zürich. Mathilde (1828-1902) became his muse and his music to her poems resulted in the 'Wesendonck Lieder'. In 1858 his wife Minna intercepted a love letter to Mathilde and their liaison ended. It is unclear if they were lovers. In 1860 he was granted amnesty in Germany except for Saxony. In 1862 a full amnesty followed.

From 1864 onwards king Ludwig II of Bavaria supported him financially. This enabled the production of "Tristan and Isolde", "Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg", "Das Rhinegold" , and "Die Walküre". Wagner's influence on the king was regarded as dangerous and in combination with a personal scandal he was forced to leave Munich. This scandal was his liaison with Liszt's daughter, who had married his conductor and friend Hans von Bülow in 1857. Cosima bore Wagner a daughter in 1865 (Isolde) that was accepted by Von Bülow as his own. From 1866 onwards Wagner lived at Tribschen (near Lucerne) with Cosima. By the time he married her in 1870 they had three children. Their daughter Eva was born in 1867 and their son Siegfried was born in 1869.

Wagner devoted himself now to the completion of his epic work "Der Ring des Nibelungen", about a struggle between the gods and mankind. It consisted of four parts, "Das Rheingold", "Die Walküre", "Siegfried" and "Die Götterdämmerung". Under his direction a new theatre was built in Bayreuth (in Bavaria) where his complete Ring was first performed from 13 to 17 Aug 1876. Gounod, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, Saint-Saens and Liszt, they were all there to witness these first Bayreuther Festspiele. Judith Gautier (1845-1917) was also present and she was the master's muse during the event, although it's not clear if there affair was consummated or not. After the Festspiele Judith an intimate correspondence followed. Judith sent her letters to Wagner's barber Schnappauf, but after Cosima caught him burning some of the correspondence early in 1878, they had to put an end to the affair.

Wagner continued his writings on musical and political themes, among them 'racial purity'. In 1882 he completed his final opera "Parsifal" in Palermo. It was performed on 25 Jun 1882 in Bayreuth during the second Festspiele. The work had put a serious strain on Wagner and he died of a heart attack on 13 Feb 1883 in Venice. On the morning of his death he had an argument with Cosima after the announcement of a visit by Carrie Pringle, one of the 'flowermaidens' at the festival of 1882. Wagner withdrew to his study and the excitement probably caused the heart attack. Two days before his death he had dreamt of Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient and told Cosima that the women of his life had passed before his eyes.

Wagner was buried in the garden of his villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth. Cosima became the guardian of his work and managed the 'Festspiele' in Bayreuth. She survived him until 1930. His son Siegfried tried hard as a composer, but his opera's were little successful. Siegfried preferred men above women, but pressed by Cosima he married the young Winnifred Williams, who bore him four children. A few months after his mother's passing away Siegfried died from a heart heart attack, like his father.

During his life Richard Wagner had several love affairs. Apart from his well known affairs with Judith Gautier and Mathilde Wesendonck he was involved with Jessie Laussot (1829-1905), Mathilde Maier (1833-1910) and Friederike Meyer. He also had a short liaison with Cosima's older sister Blandine and only after her death in 1862 he started his affair with Cosima.

Family
• Mother: Wagner, Johanna Rosina
• Daughter: Bülow, Isolde von
• Son: Wagner, Siegfried
• Daughter: Bülow, Eva von
• Wife: Wagner, Cosima (1870-1883, Luzern: Matthäuskirche)
• Wife: Wagner-Planer, Minna (1836-1866, Königsberg: Kirche von Tragheim)
• Sister: Marbach, Johanna Rosalie

Related persons
• had work performed by Baracchi, Aristide
• was admired by Baudelaire, Charles
• had work performed by Bausewein, Kaspar
• was admired by Boito, Arrigo
• employed Brandt, Carl
• was sculpted by Breker, Arno
• cooperated with Bülow, Hans von
• was written about by Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
• visited Collard, Charles Lukey
• influenced Cornelius, Peter
• was admired by Draeseke, Felix August Bernhard
• was visited by Draeseke, Felix August Bernhard
• was sculpted by Eberlein, Gustav
• was admired by Fantin-Latour, Henri
• employed Fischer, Franz von
• cooperated with Friedrich-Materna, Amalie
• was a friend of Georg II, herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen
• was a friend of Gobineau, Arthur de
• was supported by Goldmark, Karl
• employed Gudehus, Heinrich
• was criticized by Hanslick, Eduard
• cooperated with Hiller, Ferdinand
• was admired by Holmès, Augusta
• employed Humperdinck, Engelbert
• had work performed by Keilberth, Joseph
• was a friend of Klindworth, Karl
• was written about by Kolb, Annette
• was supported by Laube, Heinrich
• was the lover of Laussot, Jessie
• cooperated with Lehmann, Lilli
• was painted by Lenbach, Franz von
• was admired by Liszt, Franz
• was influenced by Liszt, Franz
• had work performed by Lorenz, Max
• admired Lüttichau, Ida von
• knew Makart, Hans
• met Mallinger, Mathilda
• is brother/sister of Marbach, Johanna Rosalie
• had work performed by Marchesi, Blanche
• was admired by Mendès, Catulle
• was influenced by Meyerbeer, Giacomo
• was visited by Meysenbug, Malvida, Freiin von
• cooperated with Mottl, Felix
• has a connection with Neumann, Angelo
• cooperated with Niemann, Albert
• met Parsons, Albert Ross
• detested Perfall, Karl Theodor Emanuel Freiherr von
• was supported by Porges, Heinrich
• was a friend of Pusinelli, Anton
• had work performed by Reicher-Kindermann, Hedwig
• was a friend of Richter, Hans
• was admired by Rohde, Erwin
• influenced Schillings, Max von
• admired Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Ludwig
• knew Schönaich, Franz von
• was influenced by Schopenhauer, Arthur
• admired Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine
• created works that weren't liked by Schumann, Clara
• knew Spyri, Johanna
• quarreled with Strauss, Franz Joseph
• was written about by Strobel, Otto
• knew Tausig, Karl
• had work performed by Tichatscheck, Joseph
• visited Viardot-Garcia, Pauline
• has a connection with Wallem, Helena
• was influenced by Weber, Carl Maria von
• had a relationship with Wesendonck, Mathilde
• was supported by Wesendonck, Otto
• was a friend of Wilhelmj, August
• cooperated with Wilhelmj, August

Events
0/0/1828Wagner completes his tragedy "Leubald und Adelaide". He was influenced by Goethe and Shakespeare. After completing it he decided to occupy himself with music. Within half a year he would conduct and write operas. 
0/4/1829Wagner sees Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient in Beethoven's Fidelio. She played the part of Leonore. Wagner, who was sixteen years old, was deeply impressed. [Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine]
24/12/1830Richard Wagner's "Overture in B major" is performed in Leipzig. His name wasn't mentioned. 
25/12/1831Richard Wagner's "Concert Overture in d minor" is performed at the Gewandhaus in in Leipzig. It was stronly influenced by the work of Beethoven and it was probably conducted by Heinrich Dorn. 
3/2/1832Richard Wagner completes the overture to Raupach's "König Enzio" 
23/2/1832Wagner's "d-Moll-Ouverture" is performed at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig 
0/1/1833Richard Wagner is appointed choir director in Würzburg for six months. He received only 10 guilders a month for which he rented a room. During his time in Würzburg het started composing his opera "Die Feen". 
20/8/1839Richard Wagner meets Giacomo Meyerbeer at a spa in Boulogne sur Mer. They met by coincidence at a Spa, where Meyerbeer was with Ignaz Moscheles. Wagner read him from the libretto of "Rienzi" and asked him for help. Meyerbeer promised to do his best for Wagner in Paris. [Meyerbeer, Giacomo]
22/12/1841Premiere of Halévy's "La reine de Chypre" at the Salle Le Peletier in Paris. The libretto was by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges. Rosine Stolz performed the title part of this grand opera and Gilbert Duprez was Gérard. Joseph Mazilier was the choreographer. Adéle Dumilâtre, Natalie Fitzjames and Pauline Leroux were in the ballet. Richard Wagner was in the audience. [Halévy, Fromental]
20/10/1842Premiere of Richard Wagner's opera "Rienzi" at the Royal Court Theatre in Dresden. It was a huge succes. It was conducted by Carl Reissiger. Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was Adriano and Joseph Tichatschek was Rienzi. [Reissiger, Carl][Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine][Tichatscheck, Joseph]
2/1/1843Premiere of Richard Wagner's opera "Der Fliegende Holländer" in Dresden. The premiere was supposed to take place in Berlin but eventually it was at the Royal Court Theatre in Dresden. Wagner was the conductor. Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was Senta and Johann Michael Wächter was the Dutchman. [Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine]
2/2/1843Richard Wagner is appointed Royal Court Conductor of Saxony 
7/1/1844Wagner conducts "Der fliegende Holländer" at the Schauspielhaus in Berlin. It was the first time that this opera was performed in Berlin. It was well received but it wouldn't be performed again in Berlin until 1868. 
15/12/1844Carl Maria von Weber is reburied in Dresden. Richard Wagner, who had known him as a child and was now the musical director in Dresden, held a speech at the new grave at the Catholic Cemetery. [Weber, Carl Maria von]
19/10/1845Premiere of Richard Wagner's opera "Tannhäusser" in Dresden. Richard Wagner conducted the opera himself. Josef Tichatschek was Tannhäuser, Johanna Wagner was Elisabeth and Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was Venus. Other singers were Anton Mitterwurzer and Johann Michael Wächter. [Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine][Tichatscheck, Joseph]
0/12/1845Richard Wagner sees Jenny Lind in Berlin in "Don Giovanni" and in "Norma". [Lind, Jenny]
5/4/1846Richard Wagner conducts Beethoven's sixth symphony in Dresden. The performance took place at the Old Opera House. [Beethoven, Ludwig van]
16/2/1849Liszt conducts the premiere of Wagner's Tannhäuser in Weimar. An earlier version was first performed in Dresden in 1845. In 1849 Wagner was in exile in Switzerland. [Liszt, Franz]
13/5/1849Wagner arrives in Weimar. He had been forced to flee from Dresden and in Weimar he attented a probe of his Tannhäuser that was conducted by Franz Liszt. Then news arrived that Wagner would be prosecuted and he left Weimar. [Liszt, Franz]
16/3/1850Richard Wagner arrives in Bordeaux. He had been invited by Jessie Laussot to visit her and her husband. Soon he and Jessie became lovers. [Laussot, Jessie]
18/5/1850Richard Wagner returns to Bordeaux. He went to the Hôtel des 4 Soeurs. He wanted a confrontation with the husband of his mistress Jessie Laussot but he soon found out that Laussot and his wife had left the city. In June she sent him a message that she would never see him again. It seems they met again in 1876. [Laussot, Jessie]
28/8/1850Premiere of the opera "Lohengrin" by Richard Wagner in Weimar conducted by Franz Liszt. Richard Wagner had finished the opera early in 1848 but after his revolutionary activities he had been forced to leave Dresden in 1849. Liszt staged the opera in Weimar. Wagner was in exile at the time and couldn't attend. The opera was a success although the lead tenor Karl Beck disappointed. [Liszt, Franz][Milde, Hans Feodor von][Milde-Agthe, Rosa von]
3/9/1850Richard Wagner's "Das Judenthum in der Musik" is published in the Neuen Zeitschrift für Musik. It was published in two installments on 3 and 9 September 1850 under the pseudonym K. [Karl] Freigedank. His intention was to fight the influence of Jews on German music. The Neuen Zeitschrift für Musik was directed by Franz Brendel at that time. In 1869 Wagner published an extended version under his own name. 
0/5/1853Richard Wagner conducts several concerts in Zürich 
10/5/1853Liszt, Wagner and Berlioz meet at Liszt's hotel in Paris. The next day, in the presence of Wagner, Berlioz sang at breakfast and Liszt played excerpts from "Benvenuto Cellini". [Berlioz, Hector][Liszt, Franz]
4/9/1853Richard Wagner arrives in La Spezia. He had travelled by steamship from Genua and arrived exhausted in La Spezia. The next day he was so tired that he felt he was sinking in strongly flowing water and he stated that this was the inpiration for the preluded to "Das Rheingold". 
6/10/1853Liszt visits Wagner in Basel. With him was a group of supporters, among them Hans von Bülow. They came from Karlsruhe where the music festival had taken place and they stayed until Saturday. [Bülow, Hans von][Liszt, Franz]
10/10/1853First meeting between Richard Wagner and Cosima Liszt [Wagner, Cosima]
0/3/1855Richard Wagner conducts eight concerts in London. The concerts took place between March and May, 1855. 
4/3/1855Richard Wagner arrives in London to conduct eight concerts. He conducted eight concerts on 12 and March, 16 and 30 april, 14 and 28 May and 11 and 25 June. He was invited by the Royal Philharmonic Society and accepted the engagement because he needed the revenue. 
11/6/1855Queen Victoria attends a concert conducted by Richard Wagner. Victoria and Prince Albert spoke with him afterwards and she noted in her diary that he was short and quiet and that he had a hooked nose. But Wagner wrote to Franz list that she and Prince Albert were very nice to him and that they spoke openly in his favour. At the time he was still a political outlaw in Germany. 
20/6/1855Wagner and Berlioz dine together at the flat of Prosper Sainton in London. They had their differences and the diner and a few other meetings brought them closer. They wrote positive accounts of their meetings to Franz Liszt who very much wanted them to get along well. However, they were again reserved regarding each other afterwards. [Berlioz, Hector]
18/2/1856Berlioz and Marie Recio walk out during a performance of Wagner's "Lohengrin" conducted by Liszt in Weimar. It happened on 18 February of shortly afterwards. It was the first time Berlioz heard Wagner's music. Although Berlioz and Recio attented the full second performance on 24 February it clouded the friendship between Liszt and Berlioz. [Berlioz, Hector][Liszt, Franz][Recio, Maria]
28/8/1857First performance in Vienna of Wagner's "Tannhäuser" at the Ottakringer Thaliatheater. The director of the theatre, Johann Hoffmann, admired the work of Wagner. The conductor was Eduard Stolz. The location in Ottakring was the summer location of the theatre. 
30/9/1857Wagner's "Tannhäuser" is staged at the Theater in der Josefstadt in Vienna. It was staged by Johann Hoffmann who had already brought the opera to the Ottakringer Thaliatheater during the summer of 1857. 
0/8/1858Richard Wagner moves to Venice. He had separated from his wife Minna and hye lived there from August 1858 to March 1859. He worked on "Tristan and Isolde". As a former revolutionary he was watched by the police. On 1 February he was expelled from Austria, but he deadline was extended and he completed the score of Act II of "Tristan and Isolde". Amnesyty in Dresden was refused and he left Venice in March and travelled in Europe. In November 1861 he returned to Venice for four days.  
25/1/1860Richard Wagner conducts a series of concerts at the Salle Ventadour of the Opéra italien in Paris. The concerts included extracts from his operas "Lohengrin", "Tannhäuser" and "Tristan und Isolde". The first concert was visited by Daniel Auber, Hector Berlioz, Charles Gounod, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Ernest Reyer, François-Auguste Gevaert and Jules Champfleury. The second concert took place on 1 Febraury 1860 and the third concert on 8 February 1860. During the series he met Charles Baudelaire, who was much impressed by Wagner's music. [Auber, Daniel][Baudelaire, Charles][Berlioz, Hector][Gounod, Charles][Meyerbeer, Giacomo]
0/3/1860Richard Wagner is received by Gioacchino Rossini in Paris. It was early in March. 
0/7/1860Act Two of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde is performed at the house of Pauline Viardot. It was performed by Pauline Viardot, Richard Wagner himself and Karl Klindworth. Hector Berlioz and Marie Kalergis, in whose honour the event was organised, were present. [Berlioz, Hector][Klindworth, Karl][Viardot-Garcia, Pauline]
2/2/1861Ludwig II of Bavaria attends Wagner's opera "Lohengrin". Ludwig was much impressed. 
13/3/1861Premiere of Richard Wagner's revised "Tannhäuser" at the Salle Le Pelletier in Paris. The performance was requested by Emperor Napoleon III after a suggestion by Pauline von Metternich. Urged by the members of the Jockey Club, Wagner had added a ballet to his opera. However, Wagner let the ballet start immediately after the ouverture, while it was known that the gentlemen were only present from the second act because they first finished their diners. The performance was disturbed by booing. Hector Berlioz was in the audience. After three performances "Tannhäuser" was over in Paris. [Berlioz, Hector][Napoleon III Bonaparte][Niemann, Albert]
15/5/1861Richard Wagner attends the staging of "Lohengrin" at the Court Opera in Vienna 
8/2/1862Richard Wagner moves to Biebrich. He was once more in financial difficulties and he rented two rooms in a villa built by the architect Frickhöfer at the Rheingaustrasse 137 near Schloss Biebrich. It was also near his publisher Schott in Mainz. He worked there on his future opera "Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg" and he was visited by Hans and Cosima von Bülow. He left Biebrich in November. [Bülow, Hans von][Wagner, Cosima]
1/11/1862Hans and Cosima von Bülow meet Richard Wagner in Leipzig. There was a concert where Hans von Bülow would play Liszt's new piano concert and Wagner would conduct the Tannhäuser ouverture and a new prelude to "The Meistersinger". Wagner's young friend Wendelin Weissheimer would also present his work. Wagner later stated in his autobiography that at this day he experienced his first feelings for Cosima and that he hardly noticed the music. [Bülow, Hans von][Wagner, Cosima]
26/12/1862The empress Elisabeth attends the first concert conducted by Richard Wagner in Vienna. It was the first time Wagner conducted a concert in Vienna. He didn't like conducting because it distracted him from composing, but he urgently needed the money. He also hoped to arrange a performance of "Tristan und Isolde" in Vienna. [Elisabeth von Bayern, Kaiserin von Österreich]
6/1/1863Premiere of Brahm's "Piano Sonata 3" in Vienna. He played it himself. Richard Wagner was in the audience. [Brahms, Johannes]
11/1/1863The empress Elisbeth attends the third Wagner concert in Vienna. She had also attended the first concert Wagner conducted in Vienna. She missed the second concert on 1 Jan 1863. [Elisabeth von Bayern, Kaiserin von Österreich]
8/2/1863Richard Wagner conducts his own music in Prague. Antonin Dvorak was a member of the orchestra. [Dvorak, Antonin]
0/3/1863Richard Wagner arrives in Moscow for three concerts. He came from St. Petersburg and returned there after his stay in Moscow. He met Nikolaus Rubinstein. He also visited the Kremlin but it didn't impress him at all. 
2/3/1863Richard Wagner conducts concerts in Saint Petersburg. In March he went to Moscow for three concerts and after that he gave more concerts in Saint Petersburg in April 1863. 
12/5/1863Richard Wagner moves to Penzing near Vienna 
28/11/1863Richard Wagner and Cosima Liszt become lovers. Wagner was staying in Berlin because Cosima's husband Hans von Bülow had asked him to attend a concert. When Von Bülow was busy with the repititions Wagner and Cosima made a coach ride during which they confessed to each other that they belonged together. That night Wagner was staying in Von Bülow's house. [Bülow, Hans von][Wagner, Cosima]
4/5/1864First meeting between Ludwig II of Bavaria and Richard Wagner 
10/4/1865Hans von Bülow conducts the first repetition of "Tristan und Isolde". On the same day his wife Cosima bore a daughter, that was named Isolde. Isolde's father was Richard Wagner, the composer of "Tristan and Isolde". [Bülow, Hans von][Bülow, Isolde von][Wagner, Cosima]
10/6/1865Premiere of Richard Wagner's "Tristan Und Isolde" in Munich. Hans von Bülow was the conductor. "Tristan und Isolde" was refused in Paris, Vienna and Karlsruhe because it would be 'impossible to perform'. The performance started at six and ended shortly before midnight. Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld was Tristan and his wife Malvina was Isolde. King Ludwig II of Bavaria was there. [Bülow, Hans von][Garrigues, Eugenia Malvina][Possart-Deinet, Anna von][Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Ludwig]
10/12/1865Richard Wagner is forced to leave Munich. Wagner's presence was now unwanted because he was suspected to influence king Ludwig II, who had given him a lot of money. 
24/10/1867Wagner completes his opera "Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg" 
21/6/1868Premiere of Wagner's "Die Meistersinger von Nünberg". It was staged in Munich in the presence of King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Hans von Bülow was the conductor. Ludwig insisted that Wagner would sit next to him in the royal box. After the first act the public was very enthousiastic and demanded to see the composer. But Wagner didn't show himself. Only after the last act he rose to accept the ovation of the public. This caused a scandal because it was considered inappropriate that a composer received the honours of the public standing next to the king. [Bausewein, Kaspar][Bülow, Hans von][Diez-Hartmann, Sophie][Mallinger, Mathilda][Strauss, Franz Joseph]
22/9/1869Premiere of Richard Wagner's "Das Rheingold" in Munich. Franz Wüllner was the conductor. August Kindermann was Wotan, Heinrich Vogl was Loge, Sophie Stehle was Fricka, Henriette Müller-Marion was Freya,. Other parts were sung by Franz Nachbaur, Emma Seehofer, Max Schlosser, Kasper Bausewein, Anna Kaufmann, Therese Vogel, Karl Samuel Heinrich and Wilhelmine Ritter. [Bausewein, Kaspar][Vogl, Heinrich][Vogl, Therese]
26/6/1870Premiere of Wagner's "Die Walküre" at the Hoftheater in Munich. Wagner wanted to stage it in 1871, but Ludwig II of Bavaria was the legal owner of the piece and didn't want to wait. Wüllner was the conductor and Joachim, Brahms, Saint-Saëns and Liszt were in the audience. Wagner wasn't there and Ludwig also stayed away. He had decided to wait for the second performance so that he would be able to see "Das Rheingold", that would be staged again during the summer, and "Die Walküre" in the right order. [Bausewein, Kaspar][Brahms, Johannes][Joachim, Joseph][Liszt, Franz][Possart-Deinet, Anna von][Saint-Saëns, Camille][Vogl, Heinrich][Vogl, Therese]
5/2/1871Wagner completes his opera "Siegfried" 
12/5/1871Richard Wagner announces to build his own theatre in Bayreuth. He didn't want to stage his "Ring" in Munich as originally planned because the Court Theatre was not fit for the purpose. This was reason enough for Wagner to build his own theatre. 
1/11/1871Richard Wagner's "Lohengrin" is performed at the Teatro Communale di Bologna. It was the first time that a work by Wagner was perfomed in Italy. The local press protested against it, but the city council allowed it. The Viennese music critic Ernst Frank was in the audience. Wagner's start would soon rise in Italy and he was made a honorary citizen of Bologna in 1872. 
22/5/1872The first stone is laid for Richard Wagner's Festspielhaus in Bayreuth. It took place on Wagner's 59th birthday. It had cost him much effort to find the funding for the theatre in which he wanted to perform his Ring. Fransz Liszt took part in the ceremony. On this occasion the first meeting between Malwida von Meysenbug and Friedrich Nietzsche took place. [Liszt, Franz][Meysenbug, Malvida, Freiin von]
7/11/1872The revised of Richard Wagner's "Tannhäuser" is staged at the Teatro Comunale in Bologna. He had revised it in 1861 and this version was known as the 'Paris' version. It was the first time that this version was performed outside France. Angelo Mariani was the conductor. On 30/01/1899 it would be produced in New York and on 15/07/1895 in London. 
0/9/1873Bruckner visits Wagner in Bayreuth. Bruckner asked Wagner if he could dedicate his third symphony to him and Wagner approved his request. 
28/4/1874Richard Wagner moves into his villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth 
21/11/1874Wagner completes his opera "Götterdämmerung". This was the last of the four parts of his "Ring". 
0/3/1875Festival in honour of Richard Wagner at Makart's studio in Vienna. It had the form of a costume ball and he cooperated with Franz von Lenbach. Franz Liszt played the piano. Apart from Richard Wagner, his wife Cosima, Gottfried Semper and Arnold Böcklin were present. [Böcklin, Arnold][Lenbach, Franz von][Liszt, Franz][Makart, Hans ][Semper, Gottfried][Wagner, Cosima]
12/6/1875Wagner's "Lohengrin" is staged at Drury Lane in London 
11/5/1876Last meeting between Wagner and Nietzsche. They were both in Sorrento and would be estranged afterwards. 
13/8/1876Premiere of Wagner's "Ring" in Bayreuth starting with "Das Rheingold". It was performed from August 13th to August 17th. "Das Rheingold" had its premiere in Munich in 1869, but this time the entire "Ring" was performed. Many illiustrious persons were present, among them Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany and King Ludwig II of Bavaria. On the 13th "Das Rheingold" was performed. Among the singers were Franz Betz, Heinrich Vogl, Friederike Grün, Marie Haupt, Eugen Gura, Georg Unger, Louise Jaide, Karl Hill, Max Schlosser, Albert Eilers, Franz von Reichenberg, Lilli Lehmann, Marie Lehmann and Minna Lammert. [Friedrich-Materna, Amalie][Lehmann, Lilli][Lehmann, Marie][Richter, Hans][Vogl, Heinrich][Wilhelm I, emperor of Germany]
14/8/1876Wagner's "Die Walküre" performed in Bayreuth as second part of the full "Ring". Hans Richter was the conductor. Among the singers were Albert Niemann, Josephine Schefsky, Franz Betz, Friederike Grün, Amelie Materna, Marie Haupt, Lilli Lehmann, Marie Lehmann, Luise Kaide, Johanna Jachmann-Wagner, Hedwig Reicher-Kindermann and Minna Lammert. [Friedrich-Materna, Amalie][Lehmann, Lilli][Lehmann, Marie][Niemann, Albert][Reicher-Kindermann, Hedwig][Richter, Hans]
16/8/1876Premiere of Richard Wagner's opera "Siegfried" in Bayreuth as third part of the "Ring". "Siegfried" was the third part of his "Ring des Nibelungen" and this part was performed for the first time. Hans Richter was the conductor. Among the singers were George Unger, Max Schlosser, Franz Betz, Karl Hill, Franz von Reichenberg, Marie Haupt, Luise Jaide and Amalie Materna. [Friedrich-Materna, Amalie][Richter, Hans]
17/8/1876Premiere of Wagner's "Götterdämmerung" in Bayreuth as the fourth part of his "Ring". Hans Richter was the conductor. The singers were George Unger, Amalie Materna, Eugen Gura, Mathilde Weckerlin, Gustav Siehr, Kal Hill, Luise Jade, Jahanna Jachmann-Wagner, Josephine Schefsky, Friederike Grün, Lilli Lehmann, Marie Lehmann and Minna Lammert. [Friedrich-Materna, Amalie][Lehmann, Lilli][Lehmann, Marie][Richter, Hans]
19/4/1877Wagner completes the textbook of "Parsifal" 
7/5/1877Start of the Wagner Festival at the Royal Albert Hall in London. It took place from 7 to 29 May. Wagner conducted the first half of each of the eight concerts that together formed the Grand Wagner Festival. The second part of the concerts was conducted by Hans Richter and Wagner watched him from a large arm chair on the corner of the stage. [Richter, Hans]
17/5/1877Richard and Cosima Wagner are received by Queen Victoria at Windsor. Queen Victoria had met Wagner before in 1855 and she noted in her diary that he had grown old and stout, with a clever, but not pleasing countenance. [Wagner, Cosima]
24/1/1878First performance of Wagner's "Ring" in Vienna starting with "Das Rheingold". Like in Bayreuth in 1876 the conductor was Hans Richter. [Reicher-Kindermann, Hedwig][Richter, Hans]
4/1/1880Richard Wagner arrive in Naples. He stayed with his family in the Angri villa on the heights of Pausilippe. 
18/1/1880Richard Wagner receives Paul de Joukovsky in Naples. Joukovsky would create the set for "Parsifal" in Bayreuth in 1882. 
19/7/1880Richard Wagner finished his essay "Religion und Kunst" 
7/8/1880Richard Wagner and his family leave Naples. He had suffered from an allergy. They would pass Rome, San Marcello, Pistoia and Florence. 
24/8/1880Richard Wagner arrives in Siena. They lived at the villa Torre Fiorentina. Wagner was amazed by the cathedral. He visited it in the company of Paul de Joukovsky and they decided to use the choir of the cathedral for the decor of the temple in "Parsifal". 
16/9/1880Franz Liszt visits Richard Wagner in Siena. He stayed until 25 September 1880 and he worked there on compositions. [Liszt, Franz]
10/11/1880Private performance of Richard Wagner's "Lohengrin" for King Ludwig II at the Court Theatre in Munich. Only Richard Wagner himself was allowed to join Ludwig in the royal box. Elsewhere in the theatre Cosima Wagner and her daughters were hidden. [Wagner, Cosima]
12/11/1880Last meeting between Richard Wagner and King Ludwig II of Bavaria. It took place at the Court Thetre in Munich. After the king heard "Parsifal" he asked Wagner to conduct the Prelude to "Lohengrin" to 'compate'. Wagner felt affronted and gave the baton to Hermann Levi. Wagner and Ludwig would never meet again. 
25/4/1881Richard Wagner completes Act I of "Parsifal" 
5/5/1881Creation of Wagner's "Ring" in Berlin by Angelo Neumann's company. It took place from 5-9 May. Richard and Cosima Wagner had travelled to Berlin and attended the performances. [Neumann, Angelo][Wagner, Cosima]
11/5/1881Richard Wagner receives Arthur Gobineau in Bayreuth. They held talks for almost four weeks. [Gobineau, Arthur de]
29/5/1881Emperor William I attends Richard WAgner's "Gotterdämmerung" in Berlin. It was the fourth cycle of performances of Wagner's "Ring" in Berlin. Richard and Cosima Wagner attended this cycle in the presence of Count Gobineau and Paul von Joukovsky. [Wagner, Cosima][Wilhelm I, emperor of Germany]
26/9/1881Judith Gautier stays with Richard and Cosima Wagner at Wahnfried. She had been invited by the Wagners and was in Bayreuth from 26 September to 1 October. Judith noticed that Wagner was seriously ill. [Wagner, Cosima]
20/10/1881Richard Wagner finishes Act II of "Parsifal" 
5/11/1881Wagner arrives at the Hôtel des Palmes in Palermo. He had travelled from Munich to Verona and then from Napoli to Palermo. His family was with him and they occupied rooms 24, 25 and 26. 
11/11/1881Richard and Cosima Wagner visit the park of the Villa Giulia in Palermo. They enjoyed the blooming vegetation. It had previously been visited by Goethe as well. [Wagner, Cosima]
28/12/1881Richard and Cosima Wagner visit the Cathedral at Monreale. Cosima noted in her diary that Wagner was in an ill humor, but the cathedral delighted them. Wagner visited the cathedral several times during their stay in Palermo. [Wagner, Cosima]
31/12/1881Richard and Cosima Wagner visit the Orto Botanico in Palermo. They admired the splendid trees. [Wagner, Cosima]
12/1/1882Richard and Cosima Wagner visit the La Zisa castle in Palermo. They also visited the cathedral on this day. [Wagner, Cosima]
13/1/1882Wagner completes "Parsifal" in Palermo 
15/1/1882Auguste Renoir sketches Richard Wagner in Palermo. They had met the day before and talked for 45 minutes, despite the fact that Wagner spoke no French and Renoir spoke no German. Renoir had proposed a short sitting on the following day. Wagner sat for him but soon lost his good humour and according to Renoir he started feeling stiff. The sitting ended after 35 minutes. Later he used the pencil sketches he had made for his oil painting of Wagner. 
2/2/1882Richard Wagner moves from the Hôtel des Palmes to the Villa del Principe Gangi in Palermo. The villa was located at the Piazza dei Porazzi. During his stay he composed the Porazzi theme. As far as known this was his last composition before his death. 
20/3/1882Richard and Cosima Wagner travel from Palermo to Acireale. Count Gravina was with them. [Wagner, Cosima]
28/3/1882Richard Wagner suffers a heart attack in Acireale. He and his wife Cosima had left Palermo and were in Acireale, between Catania and Taormina. He survived the heart attack and on 2 April he was able to make a daytrip to Taormina. 
2/4/1882Richard Wagner visits Taormina. He had sufficiently recovered from his heart attack on March, 28th. His wife Cosima was with him. [Wagner, Cosima]
10/4/1882Richard Wagner and his family leave Acireale for Messina 
14/4/1882Richard Wagner and his family arrive in Naples 
1/5/1882Richard Wagner returns to Bayreuth. He had completed his final opera "Parsifal" in Palermo. 
26/7/1882Premiere of Wagner's "Parsifal" in Bayreuth. It was Wagner's last work and it would be staged another sixteen times that year until the end of August. Hermann Levi was the conductor, but during the last performance Wagner conducted the last act himself. It was the only time he appeared as a conductor in Bayreuth. Hermann Winkelmann was Parsifal, Theodor Reichmann was Amfortas, Emil Scaria was Gurnemanz, August Kindermann was Titurel; Karl Hill was Klingsor, Amalie Materna was Kundry. Anton Fuchs and Eugen Stumpf were Gralritters. Hermine Galfy, Mathilde Keil, Max Mikorey and Adolf van Hübbenet were the Knappen. Sophie Dompierre perormed the alt solo. The Zaubermädchen were Pauline Horson, Johanna Meta, Carrie Pringle, Johanna André, Hermine Galfy and Luise Belse. [Friedrich-Materna, Amalie]
14/9/1882Richard Wagner returns to Venice. The first days he stayed at the Hotel Europa. 
16/9/1882Richard Wagner moves into the Palazzo Vendramin in Venice. He had rented an entire floor from Count Bardi. 
24/12/1882Richard Wagner conducts a private concert in Venice. It took place at the Apollinee rooms of the Fenice theatre to celebrate the birthday of his wife Cosima. At the time Franz Liszt was visiting them in Venice and he and Wagner were often seen sitting together from the Grand Canal in front of the large window. Liszt was present at this occasion. Requested by Wagner, he played an aria by Rossini. [Liszt, Franz][Wagner, Cosima]
12/2/1883Richard Wagner plays part of "Das Rhinegold" on the piano in Venice. He would die the next day at the Palazzo Vendramin. 
18/2/1883Richard Wagner is buried in the garden of his house Wahnfried in Bayreuth 
11/5/1897Rudolf Mahler stages Wagner's "Lohengrin" at the Court Opera in Vienna. He was first engaged as musical director at the Court Opera and this was his first production. Hermann Winkelmann was Lohengrin and Louise Ehrenstein was Elsa. [Mahler, Gustav]
0/3/1899Angelo Neumann performs Wagner's "Ring" in Russia. His company performed the "Ring" in Saint-Petersburg and Moscow in March and April. The young Karl Muck was the conductor and Karl Lautenschlager designed the stage set. The singers included Heinrich and Therese Vogl. Therese Vogl was later replaced by Therese Malten. [Malten, Therese][Muck, Karl][Neumann, Angelo][Vogl, Heinrich][Vogl, Therese]
0/5/1899Lilli Lehmann sings the part of Brünnhilde at the Maifestspiele in Wiesbaden. Wagner's entire "Ring des Nibelungen" was performed during that year. After that she also sang the part of Irmentraut in Lortzing's "Waffenschmied". She had also been a guest at the Maifestspiele in 1896 and she remembered them with pleasure in her autobiography. [Lehmann, Lilli][Lortzing, Albert]
1/10/1903The Richard Wagner monument in Berlin is unveiled. It was created by Gustav Eberlein. The monument was commisioned by Ludwig Leichner, a manufacturer of cosmetics. [Eberlein, Gustav]
24/12/1903First performance of "Parsifal" outside Bayreuth at the Metropolitan Opera in New York . The European copyright wasn't valid in the USA and the Metropolitan Opera in New York staged the opera against the wishes of Cosima Wagner. The MET used a publication of the opera by the publisher Schott. [Wagner, Cosima]
29/3/1918Cosima plays the Steinway piano in Bayreuth for the first time since Richard Wagner's death. She played parts of the "Siegfried-Idyll" because of the birth of Wagner's first grandson Wieland. "The Siegfried-Idyll" was composed by Wagner after his son Siegfried was born. Afterwards Cosima would never play the Steinway again. [Wagner, Cosima][Wagner, Wieland]
29/7/1951Opening of the first Festspiele in Bayreuth after the Second World War. After the Second World War, the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth stood under American command. After a while the Americans granted the Wagner family permission to resume the Festspiele. Winifred Wagner wasn't allowed to return to her post as director. She was succeeded by her son Wieland Wagner. [Wagner, Wieland][Wagner-Williams, Winnifred]

Images

The Wagner monument in Munich.
Picture by Androom (24 Aug 1996)

 

The grave of Richard and Cosima Wagner in the garden of the villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth, Bavaria.
Picture by Androom (25 Aug 1996)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner in Leipzig at the place where his birth house stood until 1886.
Picture by Androom (10 Feb 2005)

 

Socle by Max Klinger for a Wagner statue that was never realised. It was placed at the Klingerhain in Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (10 Feb 2005)

 

Bust of Richard Wagner at the Schwanenteich, Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (08 Feb 2005)

 

Richard Wagner, painted by Franz von Lenbach.
(1871)

 

Head of Richard Wagner in front of the Nibelungenhalle at the Drachenfels in Königswinter.
Picture by Androom (23 Apr 2005)

 

Bust of Richard Wagner in the garden of the Schönberg villa (near the Wesendonck villa). He lived there in a cottage next to the Wesendoncks.
Picture by Androom (18 Aug 2005)

 

The Villa Schönberg stands at the spot of the former Riegelhaus (or "Asyl") where Richard Wagner lived and worked from 1857 to 1858. The Riegelhaus was owned by Otto and Mathilda Wesendonck who sold it in 1872. The present villa was built in 1882.
Picture by Androom (18 Aug 2005)

 

The house in Tribschen where Richard Wagner once lived is now a Wagner museum.
Picture by Androom (19 Aug 2005)

 

The house in Tribschen where Richard Wagner once lived is now a Wagner museum.
Picture by Androom (19 Aug 2005)

 

The house at Hadikgasse 72 in Vienna where Richard Wagner lived (1863-1864).
Picture by Androom (23 Aug 2005)

 

Plaque at the house at Hadikgasse 72 in Vienna where Richard Wagner lived (1863-1864).
Picture by Androom (23 Aug 2005)

 

The house at Graupa near Dresden where Richard Wagner lived. It is now a museum.
Picture by Androom (27 Aug 2005)

 

The couch on which Richard Wagner died in Venice is now in his house Wahnfried in Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (24 Jan 2006)

 

The house at Kapuzinerstrasse 40 in Würzburg where Richard Wagner lived in 1833.
Picture by Androom (01 Mar 2009)

 

The house at Kapuzinerstrasse 40 in Würzburg where Richard Wagner lived in 1833.
Picture by Androom (01 Mar 2009)

 

Richard Wagner statue by Arno Breker near the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (02 Mar 2009)

 

The grave of Richard Wagner in the garden of the villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (02 Mar 2009)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner at the Hotel Imperial in Vienna.
Picture by Androom (12 Aug 2010)

 

Head of Richard Wagner at the Wagner Kulturpfad in Graupa near Dresden, Saxony.
Picture by Androom (28 Aug 2012)

 

The statue of Richard Wagner by Richard Guhr at the Liebenthaler Grund near Liebenthal, Saxony.
Picture by Androom (28 Aug 2012)

 

Statue of Richard Wagner at the Tiergarten, Berlin.
Picture by Androom (26 Aug 2013)

 

The Richard Wagner statue in Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (29 Aug 2013)

 

The Richard Wagner statue in Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (29 Aug 2013)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner at the Palazzo Vendramin in Venice.
Picture by Androom (13 Feb 2016)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner at the Palazzo Vendramin in Venice.
Picture by Androom (13 Feb 2016)

 

Café Lavena where Richard Wagner used to to go when he stayed in Venice.
Picture by Androom (15 Feb 2016)

 

Statue of Richard Wagner in Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (04 Aug 2016)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner at the garden wall of the villa in Biebrich in Wiesbaden, Hessen where he lived in 1862.
Picture by Androom (31 Jul 2022)

 

The villa in Biebrich in Wiesbaden, Hessen where Richard Wagner lived in 1862.
Picture by Androom (31 Jul 2022)

 

Sources
• Blunt, Wilfrid, The Dream King, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1973
• Desing, Julius, King Ludwig II - His Life - His End, 1976
• Vincent, Benjamin, Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, and Universal Information, Ward, Lock & Co, London, 1906
• Eger, Manfred, Richard-Wagner-Museum Bayreuth, 1995
• Gutman, Robert, Richard Wagner, Der Mensch, sein Werk, seine Zeit, Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, München, 1989
• Kröplin, Eckart, Richard Wagner Chronik, J.B. Metzler, Stuttgart, 2016
• Marek, George R., Cosima Wagner, Ein Leben für ein Genie, Knaur, München, 1993
• Prahacs, Margit, Franz Liszt, Briefe aus Ungarischen Sammlungen 1835-1886, Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1966
• Reeth, Adelaïde van & Guido Peeters, Herinneringen in Steen, De Haan/Unieboek, Houten, 1988
Time Table of History, Xïphias, 1992
• Wagner, Friedelind, Nacht über Bayreuth, Die Geschichte der Enkelin Richard Wagners, List Taschenbuch, München, 2002
Villa Wahnfried (Wagner Museum), Bayreuth
Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (editie 1909), 1909
GHDI - Image
The Hector Berlioz Website: Berlioz and Liszt
Full text of "COSIMA WAGNER VOL. II"
Verdi in Victorian London - 8. Il trovatore (1855) - Open Book Publishers
Das Judenthum in der Musik – Wikipedia
Das Rheingold – Wikipedia
1863 in music - Wikipedia
Cosima Wagner - Wikipedia
Die Walküre - Wikipedia
Götterdämmerung - Wikipedia
Giacomo Meyerbeer - Wikipedia
Lohengrin (opera) - Wikipedia
Richard Wagner - Wikipedia
Siegfried (opera) - Wikipedia
Tannhäuser (opera) - Wikipedia
Der fliegende Holländer - Wikipedia
Richard Wagner - herrrothwandertwieder
ANNÉE 1860 - LE MUSEE VIRTUEL RICHARD WAGNER
ANNÉE 1880 - LE MUSEE VIRTUEL RICHARD WAGNER
ANNÉE 1881 - LE MUSEE VIRTUEL RICHARD WAGNER
Wagner op Sicilië: Parsifal en Die Feen - Place de l'Opera
https://www.royalalberthall.com/about-the-hall/our-history/explore-our-history/time-machine/1800s/
Why Did Nietzsche Break With Wagner?
https://www.wagnergenootschap.nl/artikelen/606-wagner-in-rusland-door-jos-hermans/file
Lehmann, Lilli (Elisabeth Maria), verheiratete Lehmann-Kalisch | Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden
La reine de Chypre - Wikiwand
Richard Wagner in Sicily 1881–1882 - Wonders of Sicily


Wagner, Siegfried

Published: 01 Jan 2006
Last update: 23 Mar 2024