Napoleon III Bonaparte

MONARCH (FRANCE)
BORN 20 Apr 1808, Paris: Palais Royal - DIED 9 Jan 1873, Chislehurst, Kent: Camden Place
REAL NAME Bonaparte, Charles Louis Napoleon
GRAVE LOCATION Farnborough, Hampshire: Abbey Church of St. Michael

Louis Napoleon Boanaprte was a nephew of Napoleon I, being the son of Louis Bonaparte (the King of Holland) and Hortense the Beauhanais. After the death of his elder brothers he inherited the Bonaparte claim to the throne of France. His coup d'état of 1836 failed and he was put on the ship Andromède that took him to Norfolk. He enjoyed himself for a while in New York, but when his friend Dr. Conneau sent him message that his mother Hortense was dying ('Venez, venez!') he took the ship George Washington to London. Using a Swiss passport he travelled incognito to Arenenberg; the French agents that were put on his track failed to stop him and he reached Hortense in time on August 4th, 1837. She died two months later.

In 1840 his second coup d'état failed as well and this time Louis Napoleon was imprisoned for life at the Ham fortress. There he taught his parlourmaid Alexandrine orthography and she gave him two children in return. On May 20th, 1846 he sent her away and six days later he escaped. By the time it was noticed he was already on a ship to London. After the revolution of 1848 he came to Paris and the National Assembly granted him permission to stay. Soon he was elected in parliament and in December he was elected president with a huge majority over Cavaignac. When he visited his old prison at Ham in 1849 it was inhabited by Bou-Maza, an Arabian who had fought against the French. Louis ordered his release.

On December 2nd of 1851 he imprisoned many of his opponents and this third coup d'état succeeded. 'His' senate invited him to become emperor and a in a referendum his plan was approved by the French people with an enormous majority. On December 2nd of 1852 the empire was restored and he took the name Napoleon III, with due respect to the first Napoleon's son who never ruled France at all. On January 30th of 1853 he married Eugénie de Montijo, who provided him with an heir in 1856.

Although he was by no means a brilliant military strategist like his famous uncle, he enjoyed some military successes in the Crimean War as well as against the Austrians. Perhaps more important, under his reign France was modernized in many ways. In 1862 Maximilian of Austria became emperor of Austria under protection of French troops. When Louis Napoleon wouldn't continue the french military presence in Mexico in 1867, Maximilian refused to give up his throne and was soon afterwards executed by his rebellious opponents. For Louis Napoleon this was the beginning of the end. His health started to fail and he tried to liberalize his empire in order to preserve it for his son. But in 1870 he was outwitted by Bismarck's secret diplomacy and under pressure of the public opinion he had to declare war on Germany. But he was completely misinformed about the strenght of his army and defeat soon became inevitable.

Louis Napoleon decided to join the troops himself, but his personal courage was to no avail. He surrendered at Sédan on September 1st, 1870 and was taken to Germany as a prisoner of war. The French refused to accept his capitulation and overthrew his empire. This eventually resulted in the disastrous defeat of 1871 and the loss of Elsace-Lorraine.

As a prisoner of war, Louis Napoleon lived for a while at Wilhelmhöhe (near Kassel). Ater his release in March 1871 he spent his last few years in England. He died after a gall-stone operation and was buried at St Mary's Catholic Church in Chislehurst. Later, Eugénie decided to build a monastery and a chapel and in 1888 his remains were were buried there as well as those of his son who had been killed by the Zulus in 1879 in South Africa.

Family
• Mother: Beauharnais, Hortense de
• Brother: Morny, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, Duc de

Related persons
• employed Aguado, Arthur
• was opponent of Arago, François
• was the lover of Bellanger, Marguerite
• was a friend of Blessington, Margaret Gardiner, countess of
• was the lover of Castiglione, Virginia Oldoini, countess Verasis de
• was opponent of Cavaignac, Eugène Louis
• employed Couture, Thomas
• was pupil to Dufour, Guillaume Henri
• met Dunant, Henry
• was opponent of Favre, Jules
• was advised by Fould, Achille
• employed Haussmann, Georges Eugène, Baron
• attended a performance by Home, Daniel Dunglas
• was the lover of Howard, Harriet, Comtesse de Beauregard
• was advised by Jomini, Antoine Henri, baron
• was a friend of Kastner, Léonie
• was visited by Lavalette, Joséphine
• was opponent of Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Auguste
• knew Lind, Jenny
• was admired by Liszt, Franz
• was supported by Magnan, Bernard Pierre
• was a friend of Malmesbury, James Howard Harris, 3rd Earl of
• cooperated with Morny, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, Duc de
• was sculpted by Nieuwerkerke, Alfred-Émilien, comte de
• was opponent of Oudinot, Charles, 2nd Duc de Reggio
• was the lover of Ozy, Alice
• was the lover of Rachel
• employed Reille, André Charles
• knew Rossetti, Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe
• knew Taglioni, Marie
• was opponent of Thiers, Adolphe
• was the lover of Vergeot, Eléonore
• employed Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène Emanuel
• was the lover of Walters, Catherine 'Skittles'
• was painted by Winterhalter, Franz Xaver

Events
19/7/1815Hortense de Beauharnais and her sons leave Paris for Geneva. Napoleon had surrendered himself to the English four days before. They stopped at Aix-les-Bains. [Beauharnais, Hortense de]
7/12/1815Hortense de Beauharnais settles near Lake Constance in Switzerland. Her son Louis-Napoleon was with her. [Beauharnais, Hortense de]
11/11/1832Louis Napoleon Bonaparte visites his uncle Joseph in London. His visit lasted until May 1833. Apart from enjoying high society in London he studied the British industrialisation by visiting many factories in Birmingham. [Bonaparte, Joseph]
0/7/1835Persigny meets Louis Napoleon Bonaparte in Arenenberg 
30/10/1836The first Coup d'État of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte fails. He tried to seize power in Strasbourg but a regiment surrounded the mutineers and they surrendered. Louis fled to Switzerland. The French wanted his extradition to French, but he was a Swiss citizen and the request was refused. He left Switserland voluntarily and after a short time in prison he was put on a ship to the USA. 
9/11/1836Louis Napoleon Bonaparte is put on the stage coach to Lorient. There he would be brought on board of the Andromède. The captain received sealed orders that he was only allowed to open far on the Atlantic Ocean. The orders told him to sail to Rio de Janeiro, wait there for a month and then continue to Norfolk in the USA. It was clear that Louis should be out of the way during the trial of the other conspirators. The French people didn't consider it fair that the leader was freed and the others were tried. This led to their acquittal. 
30/3/1837Louis Napoleon Bonaparte disembarks at Norfolk, Virginia 
12/6/1837Louis Napoleon Bonaparte leaves the USA. He had a good time in New York, but he received a letter from Switzerland from his dying mother Hortense. On the back Dr. Conneau had written 'Venez, venez!'. He decided to return to Europe and boarded on the ship George Washington for London. [Beauharnais, Hortense de]
10/7/1837Louis Napoleon Bonaparte disembarks in London. He had returned from the USA because his mother Hortense was dying in Switzerland. He travelled incognito to Switzerland where he reached Hortense two month before her death. [Beauharnais, Hortense de]
4/8/1837Louis Napoleon Bonaparte reaches his dying mother Hortense. The French government had tried to prevent him from travelling from London to the continent. His friend Persigny helped him to a Swiss travelling permitted for 'Mr. Robinson'. After shaking off French agents he travelled to Rotterdam and then to Arenenberg, where his mother was living. [Beauharnais, Hortense de]
14/10/1838Louis Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Gottlieben in Switzerland voluntarily. After the death of his mother Hortense he had lived there. The French government had asked the Swiss government to expel him, but he was popular in Switzerland and an answer to the request was delayed. After the French sent troops to the Swiss border and the Swiss started a mobilisation, Louis Napoleon declared that he would go to London voluntarily. This added to his popularity in Europe and many thought that King Louis Philippe of France had made a fool of himself. 
25/10/1838Louis Napoleon Bonaparte reaches London. He had voluntarily left Switzerland after pressure from France to expel him. 
4/8/1840Louis Napoleon leaves England for a second coup d'etat in France. He left with the ship Edinburgh Castle. His intention was to start a milkitary putsch that would result in a resurrection against the government of King Louis Philippe. 
6/8/1840The second coup d'etat of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte fails. He came ashore with 50 men but instead of seizing military objects they were driven back to the sea. Most of his men were killed and he was taken prisoner. 
28/9/1840Start of the trial against Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. Because of his failed coup d'etat. He was sentenced to imprisonment for life in a fortress within the French borders. 
6/10/1840Louis Napoleon Bonaparte is sentenced to imprisonment for life. the reason was his second failed coup d'État. His jail would be the fort at Ham near Reims. 
20/5/1846Mistress Alexandrine leaves Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. She was his maid as well as his lover during his imprisonment at the fortress Ham. Because he was planning to escape he sent her and their two children away. At eight in the morning she left the fortress crying, together with the children. [Vergeot, Eléonore]
26/5/1846Louis Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from his prison. A disguise was smuggled into the fortress of Ham and Louis simply walked out of the fortress. The pipe that he had in his mouth fell to pieces and he collected the pieces to avoid being discovered. His escape wasn't noticed until twelve hours later. 
27/5/1846Louis Napoleon Bonaparte arrives in London. He had escaped at 6 AM the previous day from the fortress of Ham and had crossed the Channel under the name of Comte d'Arenenberg. The same day he met his friend Lord Malmesbury in London. They dined together and when Mamlmesbury noticed Louis de Noailles from the French embassy he asked him 'Do you know who this is? Louis Napoleon, he has just escaped'. De Noailles ran away because he wasn't yet awatre of the fact. Malmesbury claimed that he had never seen a man look so scared. [Malmesbury, James Howard Harris, 3rd Earl of]
25/2/1848Louis Napoleon Bonaparte arrives in Paris. He wanted to join the revolution in France but when he arrived the revolution was already over. 
12/6/1848The French government threatens to arrest Louis Napoleon. He was elected into the National Assembly but the government threatened to arrest him if he would come from England to France. The government referred to the banning of the entire Bonaparte familiy, but Jules Favre wondered how this was possible since Prince Napoleon, Pierre Bonaparte and Lucien Bonaparte had been elected before and were admitted. Louis Blanc and Pierre Joseph Proudhon supported Louis Napoleon as well. After a fake story by Lamartine that the Bonapartists had fired at the National Guard the government recieved more support, but two days later it became clear that Lamartine had lied. [Bonaparte, Pierre Napoleon][Favre, Jules]
14/6/1848The National Assembly votes in favour of admitting Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. De Lamartine had stopped his admission by telling lies about the Bonapartes. After he was found out a large majority of the National Assembly voted in favour of Louis Napoleon. Lamartine's next step was to spread a rumour that Louis Napoleon planned a coup d'état. 
15/6/1848Louis Napoleon gives up his seat at the National Assembly. After much discussions in France whether he was allowed to take his seat he declined it himself. He did this after consternation over his letter from 14 June in which he hadn't used the word republic. The Times had also written that there were strong rumours that a Bonaparte coup would take place. Favre, who had spoken in favour of Louis Napoleon a few days before, now wanted to ask the Minister of Justice if the letter should lead to the prosecution of Louis Napoleon. After he gave up his seat no prosecution took place. [Favre, Jules]
20/6/1848Teresa Gamba writes Lady Blessington about Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. She was now Marquise de Bloissy and she wrote that Louis Napoleon's party was now very strong and especially in the country the name of Bonaparte had an enormous prestige. The fact that the communists supported him made the 'honest folk' a bit conspicious. She stated that he would be welcome if he could save 'this poor France'. [Blessington, Margaret Gardiner, countess of]
21/9/1848Louis Napoleon Bonaparte is elected again into the National Assembly. The candicated of the dictator Cavaignac were the favourites for the eleven seats, but in Paris they were swept away by Louis Napoloeon. Louis obtained 111,752 votes, Achille Fould 78,891 votes and Raspail 66,693 votes. After his election became known the National Guard sang the Bonaparte song 'Veillons au salut d'empire' and the people shouted 'Vive Napoléon! Vive L'empereur!'. After the news reached London, Louis Napoleon packed his bags and left for Paris. [Cavaignac, Eugène Louis]
26/9/1848Louis Napoleon Bonaparte takes his seat in the National Assembly. He was elected by five departments and had received 300,000 votes. He travelled from London to Paris, where he arrived on 24 September. There were rumours that he would be arrested, but dictator Cavaignac declared that Louis was allowed to take his seat. [Cavaignac, Eugène Louis]
3/11/1848Thouvet tries to stop Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as presidential candidate. He proposed to the National Assembly that members of the Bonaparte family should be excluded from the presidential elections that would take place in December. Cavaignac was of the opinion that this was no longer possible. It was already decided that a candidate should obtain the absolute majority of the voters and at least two million votes. Otherwise the president would be chosen by the National Assembly, where Louis Napoleon was less popular than with the people in France. [Cavaignac, Eugène Louis]
10/12/1848Louis Napoleon Bonaparte wins the presidential elections in France. He received 5,434,226 votes. The other votes: Cavaignac 1,448,107; Ledru Rollin 370,119; Raspail 36,900; Lamartine 17,190; Changarnier 4,790. [Cavaignac, Eugène Louis][Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Auguste]
17/12/1848Louis Napoleon triumphantly rides to the Élysée Palace. He had been elected president the week before. 
20/12/1848Louis Napoleon Bonaparte starts his presidency 
0/0/1849Louis Napoleon visits his former prison in Ham. He had been imprisoned here from 1840 to 1846. His old cell was now inhabited by the Arabian Bou-Maza, who had fought against the French. Louis ordered his release and was freed on 22 July 1849. 
0/0/1849Louis Napoleon praises Henry IV at Chartres. Henry IV had been crowned in Chartres in 1594. Louis Napoleon praised him for appeasing catholics and protestants after thirty years of war. He visited more cities during the summer nad his speeches included references to the places where he was. At Amiens, where a treaty with England had been signed in 1802, he spoke of the peaceful intentions of France towards other nations. 
0/0/1849Louis Napoleon visits cholera patients. In the summer of 1849 a chorera epidemic swept over Paris. Louis Napoleon visited hospitals and spoke with victims. The people of Paris were very impressed because they were used to sovereigns that fled the city as soon as there was danger. 
0/0/1849Louis Napoleon dines with Maria Manuele de Montijo and her daughter Eugénie. Maria Manuela and Eugénie were staying in Paris and they had been introduced to him. He ordered his secretary Bacciochi to invite them for a diner at Saint-Cloud. Apart from Bacciochi nobody was present. After the diner he offered his arm to Eugénie who responded that her mother should receive that honour. He walked armed with Maria Manuela and Eugénie received the arm of Bacciochi. [Kirkpatrick, Maria Manuela, countess of Montijo]
27/1/1849An article of Proudhon against Louis Napoleon is published in "Le Peuple". Proudhon agitated against the possibility that Louis Napoleon would send the National Assembly home and suggested that the National Assembly should send Louis away. Louis didn't send the National Assembly away and Proudhon was prosecuted for libel by the government. 
14/3/1849Louis Napoleon gives a ball at the Elysée. The ball was organised in two large galleries at the Élysée and apart from Cavaignac all generals of the French army were there. The widow of Marshall Ney was under the guests as well. 
19/3/1849Proudhon attacks Louis Napoleon again in his newspaper. He condemned the executions of the rebels who had shot the negotiator general Bréa in June 1848. After much hesitation Louis Napoleon had allowed that two of the five executions took place on 17 March 1849. For the second time Proudhon was prosecuted for libel and this time he disappeared to hide somewhere in France. In absence he was convicted to three years of imprisonment. 
3/6/1849French troops fight Garibaldi before the gates of Rome. The French had ended the armistice on 1 June 1849. General Oudinot had said that he wouldn't attack 'the place' before the fourth of June. When he occupied the Villa Corsini outside the gates of Rome he was accused of breaking his word. Garibaldi's troops tried to drive the French troops away but they failed. Garibaldi lost 1,000 of his 6,000 men during the attempt. the radical fractions in Italy, France and other European countries never forgave president Louis Napoleon that he had allowed this to happen. [Oudinot, Charles, 2nd Duc de Reggio]
3/7/1849The French troops conquer Rome. Pope Pio IX was expelled by revolutionary Italians and Rome was occupied by an army led by Garibaldi afterwards. France sent troops to help the pope, but they were surprised by the army of 8,000 Italians and driven back. In Paris the parliament protested against the interventions and riots broke out. Eventually Garibaldi wasn't able to defend the city after Oudinot started using heavy artillery and they entered Rome in the night of 29 to 30 June. Mazzini was forced to flee to England and on 3 July Rome surrendered to Oudinot. [Mazzini, Giuseppe][Oudinot, Charles, 2nd Duc de Reggio]
7/8/1849Louis Napoleon orders Oudinot to return to France. Oudinot had taken Rome earlier that year. Louis Napoleon wasn't entirely happy with the return of Pope Pio IX. Apart from that, th French had liberated Rome without the Austrians or the Spaniards, but the cardinals thanked 'the Catholic States of Europe' for the crusade in favour of the Pope. [Oudinot, Charles, 2nd Duc de Reggio]
18/9/1849Pope Pio IX refuses a constitution and a liberal government. He published his motu proprio in which he promised to allow a certain amount of decentralisation, but he didn't meet the wish of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte to allow a liberal government. Pio IX explicity praised 'the armies of the Catholic nations' instead of explicitly mentioning France that had recovered Rome for him without the help of other nations. 
31/10/1849Louis Napoleon Bonaparte suddenly dismisses the government. there had been several arguments between him and the government but his decision was unexpected. He stated that the government should cooperate with the president that was chosen by the people and that it should accept his leadership. He nominated no successor for prime minister Odilin Barrot. General d'Hautpoul became Minister of War, Ferdinand Barrot became Minister of Internal Affairs and Achille Fould was the new Minister of Finance. Most of the press criticized his action, but Le Constitutionel stated that he hadn't the support of the press but he did have the support of the people. 
1/12/1851Louis Napoleon Bonaparte gives a ball at the Élysée. He was charming and relaxed, allthough he had planned a coup d'État for the next day. One of the guests was Caroline Norton, who was accompanied by the marquis of Douglas. As one of the few, she perceived that Louis Napoleon looked a bit exited. Persigny, Saint-Arnaud, Maupas and Mocquard were all involved in the coup and were all present. Morny had visited the theatre but afterwards he came to the Élysée as well. [Morny, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, Duc de][Norton, Caroline Elizabeth Sarah]
2/12/1851Coup d'État of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. 76 persons were arrested at night and brought to the prison at the Rue Mazas. Among them were Thiers, Cavaignac, Changarnier, Bedeau and Lamoricière. The army was positioned at strategic locations in Paris. Louis Napoleon was declared president for 10 years and in 1852 he would become emperor of France. [Cavaignac, Eugène Louis][Thiers, Adolphe]
31/1/1852Louis Napoleon Bonaparte changes the Legion d'Honneur. The order was introduced by Napoleon I in 1802. His successors had changed the appearance of the medal. By decree he declared that the picture of Napoleon I would return the medal with the text "Napoléon empereur des Français" on the front and the text "Honneur et Patrie" on the back. 
19/9/1852Louis Napoleon Bonaparte is received enthousiastically at Lyons 
27/9/1852Louis Napoleon Bonaparte visits Toulon 
7/10/1852Louis Napoleon Bonaparte visits Bordeaux and refers to an empire. During his speech at the Bourse he spoke the famous words "L'empire c'est la paix". 
22/1/1853Napoleon III officially announces his marriage. He presented it as a love match, but it is unlikely that Eugénie loved him. At this day his mistress Harriet Howard left for England. He had asked her to go to London to pay someone who blackmailed him. Because of a storm she couldn´t make the passage. In the morning she read in Le Moniteur about his engagement. She understood that she was meant to be in London at the time the engagement was made public. She returned to Paris to make a scene but Persigny managed to calm her down. [Howard, Harriet, Comtesse de Beauregard]
28/4/1855Pianori tries to assasinate Napoleon III at the Champs-Élysées. He tried to shoot the emperor with a double-barreled pistol when Napoleon passed on horseback on his way to the ois de Boulogne. His two shots missed the emperor. He was arrested, sentenced to death on 7 May 1855 and executed on 14 May 1855. 
8/9/1855Edmond Bellemare attempts to kill Napoleon III in Paris fails. He was mentally disordered. When the emperor and empress had visited a performance at the Comédie-Italinenne he drew two pistols in the Rue du Marsollier and aimed at their carriage. But he missed and nobody was hurt. He was arrested and treated as a lunatic in the Hôpital Bicêtre before being deported to Tahiti. The emperor wasn't hurt. 
15/11/1855Ingres receives a honourable medal from Napoleon III in person. Ingres was disappointed that he had to share the medal of the Exposition Universelle with nine others. Because it was feared that he wouldn't show up at the ceremony he was made grand officer of the Légion d'Honneur on 14 Nov 1855. The next day he received the medal from the emperor himself. [Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique]
14/8/1857Alexandre Dumas fils is decorated by Napoleon III. Princess Mathilde wanted to introduce him to the emperor before the ceremony, but he refused, claiming to be too shy. [Dumas, Alexandre (fils)]
16/8/1857Napoleon III awards the first Médailles de Sainte-Hélène. He gave the medals to his uncle Jérome Bonaparte, Comte Vaillant (Minister of War), admiral Hamelin (Minister of Marine), Duc the Plaisance (chancellor of the Légion d'Honneur), General de Flahaut, Comte Ornano (governor of the Invalides), admiral Perceval-Deschênes and others. [Bonaparte, Jérôme][Flahault de la Billarderie, Charles de]
14/1/1858Felice Orsini's attempt to kill Napoleon III fails. With his three accomplices he threw three bombs at the imperial carriage in Paris. Eight people died and 150 people were injured, but the emperor and the empress weren't hurt. Shortly afterwards they appeared before the public in their box in the theatre. Eugénie wrote to her mother that there was a hole in the emperor's hat. Orsini was wounded and arrested the next day. He was sentenced to death and executed on 13 March 1858. 
21/7/1858Secret meeting between Napoleon III and Cavour. It took place at Plombières. Napoleon was there for curing and Cavour had entered the country incognito at Strasbourg. They agreed there would be an uprising in Modena and after Austria would threaten the regio with violence, France would send troops. Their meeting wasn't a secret for long and many guessed what they were up to. 
4/8/1858Napoleon III inaugurates the railroad between Cherbourg and Paris. He had arrived at Cherbourg that day accompanied by empress Eugénie. 
7/8/1858Napoleon III dock inaugurated at the harbour of Cherbourg. Napoleon III and empress Eugénie were there. Queen Victoria and prince Albert had arrived on August 5th as well, but they had left early because they didn't want to witness the unveiling of a statue of Napoleon I that took place on the same day. This statue by Armand de Veel is still there. 
2/4/1861Napoleon I's remains are transferred to the crypt at the Dôme des Invalides in Paris. Before that he was buried at the chapel of Saint-Jérôme at Les Invalides after his remains were returned from St. Helena in 1840. Napoleon III and empress Eugénie looked over the balcony from above. [Napoleon I Bonaparte]
25/5/1862Ingres is awarded a seat in the Senate by Napoleon III. Art critics praised the government because this was a sign that art was a matter of national interest. [Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique]
24/4/1867Napoleon III attends Offenbach's "La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein". It was performed at the Théâtre des Variétés in Paris and Hortense Schneider was the Grand Duchess. [Schneider, Hortense]
30/6/1867Napoleon III bursts out in tears after hearing of Maximilian's death. Maximilian of Austria, emperor of Mexico, was executed on 19 June 1867. The news reached France by telegram from Washington. The young Count of Gontaut-Biron received the message and gave it to Napoleon, who burst out in tears. Eugénie had seen it coming but took it badly as well, because she felt responsible. The news was kept silent for the moment because the closing ceremony for the Exhibition Universelle was planned for the next day and Paris was full of festivities. [Maximilian of Austria, emperor of Mexico]
19/5/1869Malmesbury dines with Napoleon III at the Tuilleries. They had a private conversation in which Louis Napoleon told Malmesbury that 50,000 members of the military had voted against him and 300,000 in faovur of him. Malmesbury reacted surprised because he had thought that the French army was twice as big. [Malmesbury, James Howard Harris, 3rd Earl of]
2/1/1870Émile Ollivier presents his government. On 27/12/1869 he was asked to form a new government and he effectively became prime minister on 02/01/1870. The liberal party saw him as a marionet and dropped him. 
2/9/1870Napoleon III is taken prisoner of war. At night the French had decided to accept the German conditions for surrender. The French commander-in-chief, Wimpffen, didn't want to continue the negotiations. In the morning Napoleon tried to get better conditions from Bismarck at Donchéry, but Bismarck didn't give them. At 9 AM the armistice ended. The French were given until 10 AM to accept the conditions. At 11 AM the capitulation was signed at castle Bellevue near Frénois. Subsequently Napoleon III met Wilhelm I and was taken away as a prisoner of war. [Wilhelm I, emperor of Germany]
3/9/1870Napoleon III is brought to Bouillon. He was now a prisoner of the Germans. 
31/10/1870Eugénie arrives at Wilhemshöhe where Napoleon III is imprisoned. She had travelled incognito to Germany to visit him. At the same day Bazaine spoke with Napoleon III. [Bazaine, François Achille]
21/3/1871Malmesbury visits the former Napoleon III at Chislehurst. Napoleon III had been freed from imprisonment in Germany two days before. [Malmesbury, James Howard Harris, 3rd Earl of]
14/1/187317,000 people visit the deceased Napoleon III. He was laid out in the hall of his last house Camden Place in Chislehurst. Many of the visitors had come from France. 
15/1/1873Funeral of Napoleon III in Chislehurst. He was buried in the catholic chuch St. Mary's. The Prince Imperial and Prince Napoléon were present. His widow Eugénie stayed behind in their house in Camden Place. 
9/1/1888Remains of Napoleon III and the Prince Imperial transferred to Farnborough. Former Empress Eugénie had built a new abbey in Farnborough between 1883 and 1888. Part of it was a chapel in which the emperor and his son were reburied. A few weeks later Queen Victoria visited the place. The Norbertines care for the imperial mausoleum until 1895. In that year the empress replaced them by the Benedictines. 
5/6/1888King Oscar II of Sweden visits the mausoleum of Napoleon III in Farnborough 

Images

'Napoléon III' by Franz Xaver Winterhalter (Musée National du Château de Compiégne, Compiégne).
 

Bust of Napoleon III at the Musée Masséna, Nice.
Picture by Androom (03 Dec 2009)

 

Plaque for Napoleon III at 1c King Street, St James's, Westminster, London.
Picture by Androom (26 Mar 2016)

 

Plaque for Napoleon III at 1c King Street, St James's, Westminster, London.
Picture by Androom (26 Mar 2016)

 

The tomb of Napoleon III in the Abbey Church of St. Michael, Farnborough.
 

Bust of Napoleon III by Henri Iselin at the Palais de Compiègne.
(1862)
Picture by Androom (05 Nov 2016)

 

Bust of Napoleon III at the Musée d'Aquitaine, Bordeaux.
Picture by Androom (14 May 2017)

 

Sources
• Aaronson, Theo, The Fall of the Third Napoleon, Bobbs-Merill, Indianapolis, 1970
• Anceau, Éric, Napoleon III, Un Saint-Simon à cheval, Tallandier, Paris, 2008
• Bierman, John, Napoleon III and his Carnival Empire, Sphere Books, London, 1990
• Vincent, Benjamin, Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, and Universal Information, Ward, Lock & Co, London, 1906
• Duff, David, Eugenie & Napoleon III, Collins, London, 1978
• Haslip, Joan, Imperial Adventurer: Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, and his Empress, Cardinal, London, 1974
Historia 454, Tallandier, Paris, 1984
• Maurois, André, Les Trois Dumas, Hachette, Paris, 1957
Miroir de l'Histoire 108, Paris, 1958
• Richardson, Joanna, Princess Mathilde, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1969
• Ridley, Jasper, Napoleon III and Eugénie, Constable, London, 1979
• Thompson, J.M., Louis Napoleon and the Second Empire, Norton, New York, 1967
• Tinterow, Gary & Philip Connisbee (eds.), Portraits by Ingres, Image of an Epoch, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1999
Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (editie 1909), 1909
napoleon.org - Le site d'histoire de la Fondation Napoléon
Harris - Wikisource, the free online library
Giovanni Pianori — Wikipédia


Nasse, Erwin

Published: 01 Jan 2006
Last update: 19 Apr 2020