Napoleon I Bonaparte
Napoleon I Bonaparte
|MONARCH, STATESMAN, GENERAL (FRANCE)|
BORN 15 Aug 1769, Ajaccio, Corse - DIED 5 May 1821, Longwood, St. Helena: Longwood House|
REAL NAME Bonaparte, Napoléon (Buonaparte, Napoleone)
GRAVE LOCATION Paris: Dôme des Invalides
Napoleon Buonaparte was born into a noble family on Corsica. His father Carlo Buonaparte was a lawyer. He was admitted to the military academy in Brienne in 1779, but he was able to spend much of his time on Corsica. He supported the Corsican rebel Pasquale Paoli, but later they became opponents and when the civil war broke out in 1793 the Buonapartes fled to France, where they called themselves Bonaparte.
During the French Revolution he distinguished himself by chasing the English from Toulon. He became a favourite of Robespierre, was arrested for treason, released and then became a favourite of Barras. In 1795 he defended the government against anti-revolutionary troops and he was rewarded by Barras with a high military position. In 1796 he married Joséphine de Beauharnais, the widow of Alexandre the Beauharnais, who had been executed because of his military failure.
A few days after his marriage he was put in command of the troops that fought the Austrians in Italy. The Austrian army was considered to be stronger, but Bonaparte won many battles and entered Milan on May 15th. He returned to Paris as a celebrity. In 1798 he left for Egypt, but after a change of government in France in 1799 he left his troops and returned to France, where he took part in a coup in November 1799.
He became a member of the Consulate and by February 1800 he was First Consul and had effectively seized power in France. After the battle of Marengo he was able to turn his attention to internal matters and he reformed the legal system as well as the economy. In 1802 he was elected Consul for life with three million votes against a few thousand. On December 2, 1804 he crowned himself as the emperor of France. Early in 1805 he was offered the Italian crown and he was crowned as king of Italy on May 26th, 1805.
The other European countries distrusted his ambitions and many years of war followed. In 1805 he entered Vienna with his troops and on February 12th, 1805 he won a battle against Alexander I of Russia and Franz I of Austria. Later that month the king of Naples was disposed. In 1806 he fought Prussia, defeating Hohenlohe near Jena on October 14th, 1806.
He had no children with Joséphine, although he treated her son Eugène and daughter Hortense from her first marriage as his own children. When he was in Poland he heard on December 31th, 1806 that his mistress Eléonore Denuelle had bore him a son and thus found out that he was able to have children himself. In 1807 he defeated the Prussian and Russian armies. The kingdom of Westfalen and the Duchy of Warsaw were created. He intervened in Spain as well, but the Spanish didn´t to accept his brother Joseph as their new king and started a guerilla against the French troops.
Napoleon wanted a heir for his throne and in 1809 he divorced Joséphine to marry Marie Louise of Austria in 1810. In the same year Maria Walewska, who had become his mistress in 1807 to help her country Poland, bore him a son, Alexandre Walewski.
Things in Spain didn't go well, but disaster struck after he declared war on Russia. With an enormous army he went to Russia, but there they found that all local resources were destroyed before they could get to them and even Moscow was set on fire. Winter came and the French army was forced to retreat. Most of the soldiers and their followers died and only a small part of the army was able to return to France.
Napoleon returned to Paris on December 19th, 1812. A few months later Prussia declared war. He was able to bring a new army together, but the French were massively defeated near Leipzig on October 16, 1813. Although he managed to win a battle against Blücher's troops early in 1813, his troops were defeated again near Laon on March 9, 1814. The allied troops marched up to Paris and Napoleon was forced to abdicate. He was given Elba and was allowed to keep the title of emperor. He wished Marie-Louise to follow him, but Metternich wanted a divorce and Marie-Louise was already involved in an affair with Count Neipperg.
In Februay 1815 he left Elba and returned to France. His friends thought it was suicide, but after he had set foot on French ground regiments of the French army took his side at Grenoble and then Lyon. On March 20th 1815 he reached Paris, a few hours after Louis XVIII had fled to Gent in Belgium and he regained power. The allied nations immediately decided they couldn't allow this and prepared for another battle. Napoleon was narrowly defeated by Wellinton and Blücher at Waterloo near Brussels on June 18th, 1815. This time his enemies took no risk and sent him as a prisoner to St. Helena. There he died after six years and he was buried on the island. In 1840 the ship the Belle Poule was sent to St. Helena to return his body to Paris. There it was placed in the Dôme des Invalides.
Son: Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt
Wife: Beauharnais, Joséphine de (1796-1809, Paris: Mairie of the 2nd Arrondissement) (divorce)
Wife: Marie Louise, Empress of France, Duchess of Parma (1810-1821, Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine)
corresponded with Ali Pasha
was sculpted by Barye, Antoine Louis
adopted Beauharnais, Eugène Rose de, Duke of Leuchtenberg
adopted Beauharnais, Hortense de
employed Bernard, Simon
admired Bigottini, Émilie
is brother/sister of Bonaparte, Elisa
was admired by Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord
has a connection with Cambacérès, Jean Jacques Régis de, duc de Parma
employed Caulaincourt, Armand Augustin Louis de, Duc de Vicenza
employed Constant de Rebecque, Benjamin
employed David, Jacques-Louis
commanded Davout, Louis-Nicholas, Duke of Auerstädt
employed Denon, Dominique Vivant, Baron de
was the lover of Denuelle, Eléonore
was the lover of Duchesnois, Joséphine
was painted by Eastlake, Charles Lock
was the lover of Fourès, Pauline
admired Franul von Weißenthurn, Johanna
was the lover of George, Marguerite Joséphine
was painted by Gérard, François, baron
met Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
met Grétry, André Ernest Modeste
was painted by Gros, Antoine-Jean
visited Helvétius, Anne-Catherine
met Hogendorp, Carel, Graaf van
was painted by Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique
was a friend of Isabey, Jean Baptiste
met Jumel, Eliza
was written about by Junot, Laure, Duchesse d'Abrantès
has a connection with Kielmansegg, Auguste Charlotte, Gräfin von
employed La Bédoyère, Charles, Comte de
was a friend of Lannes, Jean, Duc de Montebello
was written about by Las Cases, Emanuel Augustin Dieudonné, marquis de
was supported by Lefebvre, François Joseph, Duc de Dantzig
was painted by Lefèvre, Robert
employed Lemarois, Jean Léonor François, Comte
met Louise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, königin von Preussen
was admired by Mars, Anne Françoise Hippolyte Boutet Monvel
admired Milder-Hauptmann, Anna
met Müller, Friedrich Theodor Adam Heinrich von
employed Murat, Joachim, king of Naples
commanded Ney, Michel, Duc d’Elchingen, Prince de la Moskowa
employed Oudinot, Charles, 2nd Duc de Reggio
employed Prétet, Charles Marie Étienne
has a connection with Rémusat, Claire-Élisabeth Gravier de Vergennes, comtesse de
admired Talma, François Joseph
has grave monument designed by Visconti, Ludovico Tullio Gioacchino
was the lover of Walewska, Maria
was defeated by Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of
|21/9/1795||Engagement of Napoleon Bonaparte and Désirée Clary. Napoleon's brother Joseph Married Julie Clary on 01/08/1794 and Napoleon was engaged to her sister Désirée. She moved to Genoa with her family to escape the French revolution and after Napoleon met Joséphine de Beauharnais he decided to end the engagement. |
|9/2/1796||The engagement of Napoleon Bonaparte and Joséphine de Beauharnais is made public [Beauharnais, Joséphine de]|
|9/3/1796||Napoleon Bonaparte marries Joséphine de Beauharnais  [Beauharnais, Joséphine de]|
|4/5/1798||Napoleon leaves Paris for the Middle East. His wife Joséphine accompanied him. [Beauharnais, Joséphine de]|
|9/5/1798||Napoleon embarks on the admiral's ship L'Orient. He embarked for Egypt. His wife Joséphine cried all the way to Toulon because she didn't want to go and finally Bonaparte decided to leave her in France. [Beauharnais, Joséphine de]|
|0/9/1798||Napoleon sees Pauline Fourès and is impressed. He gave order to find out who she was and managed to make her his mistress. For this purpose he sent her husband to Paris without her. The affair comes at a good moment because his prestige has suffered from the infidelity of his own wife Joséphine. [Beauharnais, Joséphine de][Fourès, Pauline]|
|9/11/1799||Coup d'État by Napoleon I. He brought down the directoire government and became First Consul himself. |
|26/5/1805||Napoleon crowned to King of Italy at the Duomo di Milano. The archbishop Giovanni Battista Caprara blessed the Iron Crown of Lombardy before Napoleon placed it on his own head. |
|27/12/1805||Napoleon declares the king of Naples to be deposed. At Schönbrunn he signed a decret that stated "The Bourbon dynasty in Naples had ceased to reign". |
|31/12/1806||Napoleon hears of the birth of his son, Léon Denuelle. He was in Pulstick in Poland when he heard that his mistress Eléonore Denuelle had given birth to a son on 13 Dec. He was full of joy because now he realised that he was able to have children. [Denuelle, Eléonore]|
|21/11/1807||Napoleon arrives in Milan. On the following day he was present at a Te Deum in the Duomo in Milan, later reviewing troops and visiting the Princess Augusta de Bavière, Vicereine of Italy and wife of Eugène.  |
|4/1/1808||David presents to Napoleon the final version of his painting of Napoleon's coronation. Napoleon was very pleased with the result. [David, Jacques-Louis]|
|2/10/1808||Goethe on audience with Napoleon at the palace in Erfurt. It was the first meeting between the two and Talleyrand, Berthier and Savary were there as well. When he was first invited in 1806 Goethe had excused himself for health reasons and during Napoleon's second visit to Weimar, Goethe was in Karlsbad. Napoleon spoke to Goethe about "Die Leiden des jüngen Wethers" and Goethe observed that the emperor knew it very well. [Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von]|
|6/10/1808||Goethe meets Napoleon during the Court Ball in Weimar. It was their second meeting, after Napoleon had received him in Erfurt four days before. Napoleon invited Goethe to come to Paris to write a Caesar tragedy. In his opinion there was no good work yet on this subject. On 14 Oct 1808 Goethe received the Légion d'Honneur. [Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von]|
|17/4/1809||Napoleon suddeny appears at Donauworth. He came to take command of the army and he led an advancd to Landshut. |
|13/5/1809||French troops enter Vienna. They were under command of general Oudinot who would soon be promoted to marshall. It was the second time that French troops entered Vienna, Napoleon himself had been there in 1805. |
|30/11/1809||Napoleon tells Joséphine that he wants to divorce her. She had been unable to provide him with a son. After he told her she fainted and was carried to her chambers by Napoleon and Bausset. [Beauharnais, Joséphine de]|
|15/12/1809||Napoleon divorces Joséphine de Beauharnais. On this date they both agreed to the dissolve their civil marriage. They signed the declaration in Napoleon's chambers at the Palais des Tuileries. Madame Mère, Louis, Jerome, Murat, Eugène, Julie, Hortense, Catherine, Pauline and Caroline were all present. The Roman Catholic marriage was annulled on 9 Jan 1810. [Beauharnais, Joséphine de]|
|16/3/1810||Louis Napoleon gives up Dutch territories to France. His brother Napoleon forced him to give up Brabant, Zeeland, the Land van Maas en Waal and the city of Mijmegen to France. |
|25/5/1810||Napoleon is crowned King of Italy in Milan |
|10/7/1810||The Kingdom of Holland becomes part of France immediately by an imperial decree [Beauharnais, Hortense de]|
|15/12/1812||Napoleon passes through Weimar on his way back from Russia. It happened during the night and he sent his greetings to Goethe. [Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von]|
|0/4/1814||Metternich asks for a separation of Napoleon I and Marie Louise. To keep her away from Napoleon who was banised to Elba, she was offered Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla by the Congress of Vienna. [Marie Louise, Empress of France, Duchess of Parma]|
|16/4/1814||The Treaty of Fontainebleau is ratified. Napoleon was sent to Elba with a substantial pension and the throne of France would be returned to Louis XVIII. |
|25/4/1814||Napoleon is almost lynched at Orgon. He was on his way to Elba with a small escort and when he passed the village of Orgon near Avonon the crowds pressed against the windows of his carriage and abused him. He promptly used the Austrian commissioner's cloak to avoid recognition. When he returned to France in the spring of 1815 he avoided the Provence on his way to Paris. |
|3/5/1814||Napoleon embarks at Elba. He thought the island was a bit small. His wish that Marie-Louise would join him wasn't fulfilled and she would enter into an affair with count Neipperg later that year. He was visited by Maria Walewska and their son Alexandre. [Walewska, Maria ]|
|24/9/1814||Marie Louise and Count Neipperg become lovers. Count Adam Albert von Neipperg accompanied Marie Louise on a journey to Aix-les-Bains when Napoloen was at Elba. Forced by bad weather they had to spend the night at the inn "Die Goldene Sonne" at Küssnacht and during the night they became lovers. It is believed that Marie Louise had been after him for a while and Neipperg didn't resist. [Marie Louise, Empress of France, Duchess of Parma][Neipperg, Adam Albert, Count von]|
|30/7/1815||Napoleon is told that he will be banished to St. Helena. Admiral Keith told him this. Everybody had expected that the former emperor would be treated with respect so this came as a surprise. |
|25/7/1818||Napoleon's physician O'Meara leaves St. Helena. He had become physician to Napoleon shortly after the Battle of Waterloo. After a conflict with Hudson Lowe he was forced to leave the island. |
|2/4/1861||Napoleon I's remains are transferred to the crypt at the Dôme des Invalides in Paris. Before that he was buried at the chapel of Saint-Jérôme at Les Invalides after his remains were returned from St. Helena in 1840. Napoleon III and empress Eugénie looked over the balcony from above. [Napoleon III Bonaparte]|
The statue of Napoleon that was finished by Canova in 1806. In 1816 it became the property of the Duke of Wellington and it can still be found at Apsley House, Wellington's home in London.
Picture by Androom (24 Mar 1996)
The stone near Jena where Napoleon stood at the time of the battle against the Prussians in 1806.
Picture by Androom (06 Feb 2005)
Napoleon Bonaparte's tomb at the Dôme des Invalides, Paris.
Picture by Androom (17 Nov 2006)
Plaque at a house in Nice that was visited by Napoleon in 1796.
Picture by Androom (29 Nov 2008)
"Napoleon Bonaparte, Premier Consul".
The house in Wittenberg where Napoleon I (1806 and 1813), Maxim Gorky (1903), Friedrich Schiller (1809) and Karl August von Sachsen-Weimar (1828) stayed.
Picture by Androom (25 Aug 2013)
Metternich, Staatsman und Kavalier, Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, München, 1978
Breton, Guy, Histoires d'Amour de L'Histoire de France 7, Presses Pocket, Paris, 1965
Die Grosse Dynastien, Südwest Verlag, München, 1978
Longford, Elizabeth, Wellington, The Years of the Sword, World Books, London, 1971
Orlandi, Enzo en Mario Rivoire (ed.), Onsterfelijke Vrouwen (deel 1), Spaarnestad, Haarlem, 1969
Point de Vue (Images du Monde), Point de Vue, Créteil
Schiel, Irmgard, Marie-Louise, Une Habsbourg pour Napoléon, Duculot, Paris, 1992
Vanoyeke, Violaine, Les Bonaparte, Criterion, Paris, 1991
Voor en na Waterloo, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1963
Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (editie 1909), 1909
Napoleon - Wikipedia
napoleon.org - Le site d'histoire de la Fondation NapolÃ©on
Giovanni Battista Caprara - Wikipedia
War of the Fifth Coalition - Wikipedia
When Napoleon Courted DÃ©sirÃ©e Clary - Geri Walton
Final burial of the mortal remains of Emperor Napoleon I at the Eglise des Invalides, 2 April 1861 - napoleon.org
"Divorce": "for political reasons" - Napoleon with Josephine in tears - napoleon.org
"Divorce": Josephine signs the declaration of annulment - napoleon.org