Charles X, King of France

BORN 9 Oct 1757, Versailles, Yvelines - DIED 6 Nov 1836, Görz (now Nova Gorica, Slovenia)
GRAVE LOCATION Nova Gorica: Monastero di Castagnevizza, Skrabceva ulica

Charles X was a younger brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. He was a son of the Dauphin Louis (1729-1765) and his wife Maria Josefa of Saxony. Louis XV was his grandfather. His mother died when he was nine years old. In 1773 he married Marie Thérèse of Savoy and in 1775 they had a son, Louis Antoine. But his wife wasn't very attractive and he had affairs with Anne Victoire Dervieux and others. Later Louise de Polastron became his long time lover. He was also a close friend of Marie-Antoinette and even falsely accused of seducing her.

After the storming of the Bastille he fled to his wife's native country Savoy. From Turin he moved to Trier. He had plans to invade France and he moved on to Koblenz. After the French Revolution broke out he fled to Great Britain where he lived in Edinburgh and London with Louise de Polastron. In 1814 he left London to join the forces that fought against Napoleon. After Napoleon's abdication he was regent for a short time until his brother Louis XVIII returned to France.

Charles disapproved of the relatively liberal politics of his brother. On 14 February 1820 his younger son the Duke of Berry was murdered at the Paris Opera. In 1824 Louis XVIII died and Charles became king. He started his reign with some liberal measures, but he put the government in the hands of the ultraroyalists. He wasn't popular in Paris and in 1830 he hoped to increase the popularity of his government by sending a military expedition to Algeria against Algerian pirates. After elections on 23 June 1830 were unfavourable to the government, he and his ministers decided to suspend the constitution on 6 July 1830. After that he censored the press, resulting in protests and chaos. He refused to seek a compromise and on 31 July he wanted to retreat to Versailles, but he was told it wasn't safe for him there.

On 2 August 1830 Charles abdicated in favour of his grandson Henri, Duke of Bordeaux. On 16 August he fled to England with his family. For a while he resided at Lulworth Castle in Dorset but he was soon relocated to Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh. In 1832 he moved to Prague and in 1835 to Teplitz and then Gorizia. There he died from cholera in 1836.

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27/8/1791Declaration of Pillnitz in support of Louis XVI. The conference was held in Pillnitz between Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and Friedirch Wilhelm II of Prussia. The Count of Artois (the future Charles X of France) was also present in Pillnitz. On 27 August the Declaration of Pillnitz was issued in which support was declated for king Louis XVI against the French Revolution. As a result of this conference. France declared War on Prussia and the Roman Holy Empire. [Friedrich Wilhelm II, König von Preussen]
2/10/1795Charles, Count of Artois lands on the Isle of Yeu. It was only defende by 75 soldiers and taken easily. After this became known twenty departments rose against the Republic. But Charles didn't date to invade France and returned to England after two months. The rebellion was crushed. 
1/2/1814The Bourbons promise liberal policies in a proclamation. Louis XVIII and Charles X were still in England. But Napoleon's regime was close to collapsing and they tried to win the support of the French people. [Napoleon I Bonaparte]
12/4/1814Charles, Count of Artois accepts power in France in the name of his brother Louis XVIII 
23/4/1814Charles, Count of Artois signs an armistice with the allies 


The tomb of Charles X of France at the Monastero di Castagnevizza in Nova Gorica.
Picture by Androom (26 Aug 2022)


Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (editie 1909), 1909
Charles X - Wikipedia
Declaration of Pillnitz - Wikipedia
Treaty of Paris (1814) - Wikipedia
Expédition de l'île d'Yeu — Wikipédia

Charlotte Frederica von Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Published: 30 Sep 2022
Last update: 02 Oct 2022