Liszt, Franz

COMPOSER, PIANIST, CONDUCTOR (AUSTRIAN EMPIRE)
BORN 22 Oct 1811, Raiding - DIED 31 Jul 1886, Bayreuth, Bayern
GRAVE LOCATION Bayreuth, Bayern: Stadtfriedhof (A 2b/560 (small mausoleum))

Liszt made his public debut when he was nineteen years old. Soon afterwards prince Esterhazy heard him and was much impressed. Funds were raised for a serious musical education and Liszt went to Vienna to study composition with Salieri and piano with Czerny. After two years he was set to pursue his studies at the conservatory in Paris, but Cherubini, then the director of that institution, refused to admit him because he was a foreigner. After a further private eduction he played at the houses of rich families and in 1824 he made his debut in London. He caused a sensation and soon played at Drury Lane and before George IV.

The experience of seeing him perform usually put his audiences in Paris in a state ecstasy and when in 1830 he met Paganini, Berlioz and Chopin, they inspired him to exploit his romantic spirit and to find his own style as a composer.

The duchess d'Agoult left her husband in 1833 to follow Liszt and their liaison resulted in three children: Blandine, Cosima and Daniel. They separated in 1839. Under her writer's name Daniel Stern, Marie D'Agoult published the novel "Nélida", relating her relationship with Liszt. He probably never forgave her for doing so. Among Liszt's many other affairs with women was the one with Lola Montez, ending in Liszt locking Montez into a hotel room and running away himself.

When count Festetics heard Liszt in Vienna he immediately invited him to Pecs, where he gave a famous concert on January 4th, 1840. On that occasion he received a sword in the name of the people.

In 1848 he was in Ukraine, where he stayed at the estate of the rich Caroline of Sayn-Wittgenstein. They fell in love and allthough she was married they left for Weimar, the city that had offered him the position of Court Conductor long before.

He held this position in Weimar from 1848 to 1861. There he conducted the first night of Wagner's Tannhäuser on February 16, 1849. In Weimar he wrote the Faust and Dante symphonies and twelve symphonic poems. In 1856 composer and pianist Hans von Bülow asked for Cosima's hand. Liszt thought him a strange man, but after Marie d'Agoult had spoken against the marriage Liszt gave his approval. In 1859 his son Daniel died in Berlin.

In 1861 they went to Rome to seek an annulment of Caroline's marriage. But after this was granted but her family prevented her from marrying Liszt, fearing that her daughter from her first marriage would lose her rights. Liszt resigned from Weimar and decided to stay in Rome.

Princess Caroline now devoted all her energy to writing a huge work called "The Inner Causes of the Outer Weakness of the Church" and she was continuously smoking black cigars whilst writing.

Liszt lost his daughter Blandine in 1862 and turned to religion. He lived for a while at a cloister in the church of Santa Maria del Rosario on the Monte Carlo. In 1865 he took minor orders and became an Abbé. When Gregorovius saw him in Rome he cried "Mephistopheles disguised as an Abbé". He took appartments in Rome and resumed his work as a piano teacher. Around this time he had his last known love affair with the young Olga Janina, who managed to seduce him after he initially resisted her (she even threatened him with a revolver because of her love for him). From 1869 onwards he also worked at Weimar again, where he offered a masterclass to young musicians.

His daughter Cosima left Von Bülow to join Wagner and eventually she married him. Allthough her seperation from Von Bülow caused an estrangement between Liszt and Wagner, Liszt still supported Wagner's musical cause, against the wishes of Caroline. In 1872 a reconcilation between Wagner and Liszt followed, despite the princess' objections.

From 1869 to 1886 Liszt spent most of his time in Rome, Weimar and Pest. In 1886 he did a final tour and played in Antwerp, Brussels, Paris, Weimar, Bayreuth, Luxemburg and at Windsor Castle for queen Victoria. On his way to Bayreuth he caught a chill and after the doctor allowed him to drink his daily bottle of brandy congestion of the lungs followed and he died on July 31st. Cosima buried him and went on with the Bayreuth Festival that took place at the time.

Family
• Daughter: Liszt, Cosima
• Son: Liszt, Daniel

Related persons
• was the lover of Agoult, Marie Christine Sophie de Flavigny, comtesse d'
• was painted by Barabás, Miklos
• visited Beauharnais, Hortense de
• met Beethoven, Ludwig van
• was teacher to Bendel, Franz
• cooperated with Berlioz, Hector
• was teacher to Bülow, Hans von
• was the lover of Carolina, Princess of Sayn-Wittgenstein
• has a connection with Cherubini, Luigi
• knew Chopin, Frédéric François
• was pupil to Czerny, Carl
• was admired by Draeseke, Felix August Bernhard
• was admired by Eliot, George
• was teacher to Elmas, Stephan
• was a friend of Erkel, Ferenc
• met Fauré, Gabriel Urbain
• was a friend of Franz, Robert
• was a friend of Genast, Eduard
• cooperated with Gomperz-Bettelheim, Caroline von
• was the lover of Hagn, Charlotte von
• was photographed by Hanfstaengl, Franz Seraph von
• was a friend of Jaëll, Alfred
• was teacher to Jaëll, Marie
• was a friend of Joachim, Joseph
• was inspired by Kaulbach, Wilhelm von
• has a connection with Kemble, Adelaide
• was teacher to Klindworth, Karl
• was a friend of Laussot, Jessie
• was painted by Lenbach, Franz von
• has a connection with Maria Pavlovna, Grand Duchess of Russia
• was teacher to Menter, Sophie
• was a friend of Menter, Sophie
• was a friend of Meysenbug, Malvida, Freiin von
• was the lover of Montez, Lola
• was a friend of Mosonyi, Mihály
• was painted by Munkácsy, Mihály
• was photographed by Nadar
• admired Napoleon III Bonaparte, Empereur des Français
• knew Paganini, Niccolò
• met Parsons, Albert Ross
• was the lover of Plessis, Alphonsine
• cooperated with Pleyel-Moke, Marie Félicité
• was the lover of Pleyel-Moke, Marie Félicité
• has a connection with Raff, Joachim
• was teacher to Rappoldi-Kahrer, Laura
• was pupil to Reicha, Anton
• knew Reinecke, Carl
• knew Romako, Anton
• knew Sabatier, François
• was pupil to Salieri, Antonio
• met Sartori, Luigi
• supported Scheidemantel, Karl
• met Schubert, Franz Peter
• supported Smetana, Bedrich
• was teacher to Tausig, Karl
• knew Töpfer, Johann Gottlob
• knew Unger, Caroline
• was teacher to Viardot-Garcia, Pauline
• admired Wagner, Richard
• influenced Wagner, Richard
• was teacher to Wieniawsky, Joseph
• knew Zumsteeg, Emilie

Events
12/12/1823Luigi Cherubini refuses to admit Franz Liszt to the Conservatory in Paris. Cherubini declared that according to a new rule only French students were admitted to the piano class. [Cherubini, Luigi]
17/10/1825Premiere of Don Sanche by Franz Liszt at the Salle Le Peletier, Paris. Rodolphe Kreutzer was the conductor and Adolphe Nourrit sang. Liszt had written this opera in one act in 1824-1825. The French libretto was by Théaulon and de Rancé. The score was lost for thirty years until it was found in 1903. [Kreutzer, Rodolphe][Nourrit, Adolphe]
5/12/1830Premiere of "Symphonie Fantastique" by Berlioz at the Conservatoire in Paris. It was a program symphony and an important work of early Romanticism. After the concert Franz Liszt took him out for dinner. They had met the day before and Liszt was very enthousiastic about the music of Berlioz. [Berlioz, Hector]
26/2/1831Franz Liszt meets Frederic Chopin [Chopin, Frédéric François]
20/4/1832Charity concert by Paganini in Paris for cholera victims. Franz Liszt was in the audience and after hearing Paganini he decided afterwards that he wanted to become a virtuoso on the piano like Paganini was on the violin. [Paganini, Niccolò]
9/12/1832The "Symphonie Fantastique" and "Le Retour à la vie" by Berlioz are performed at the Conservatoire in Paris. His friend Franz Liszt was in the audience and so was his future wife Harriet Smithson. [Berlioz, Hector][Smithson, Harriet]
3/10/1833Berlioz marries the actress Harriet Smithson. The wedding took place at the British Embassy in Paris. Liszt was among the witnesses. [Berlioz, Hector][Smithson, Harriet]
0/4/1839Count Leo Festetics hears Franz Liszt for the first time in Vienna. As a result he immediately invited Liszt to come to Pest. 
4/1/1840Triumph for Franz Liszt in Pest. He gave a concert at the Hungarian Theatre and was presented a sable of honour by the public. 
16/1/1840Franz Liszt performs in Györ. After the concert the bishop of Györ, Sztankovics, offered him a lunch in his palace. 
12/8/1845Beethoven statue in Bonn unveiled. It was created by Ernst Hähnel and unveiled in honour of the 75th anniversary of Beethoven's birth. Franz Liszt was actively involved in the project and donated over 10,000 francs. Schlegel had been the head of the organising committee but he died in May, 1845. Professor Heinrich Breidenstein, who had first expressed the idea, took over his position. The ceremony was attended by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Hector Berlioz, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Ignaz Moscheles, Charles Hallé, Jenny Lind, Pauline Viardot, Lola Montez, Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn and Maria Kalergis. [Berlioz, Hector][Hallé, Charles][Lind, Jenny][Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix][Meyerbeer, Giacomo][Montez, Lola][Schumann, Robert Alexander][Viardot-Garcia, Pauline]
27/7/1846A concert by Franz Liszt in Zagreb is an outstanding succes 
16/2/1849Liszt conducts the premiere of Wagner's Tannhäuser in Weimar. An earlier version was first performed in Dresden in 1845. In 1849 Wagner was in exile in Switzerland. [Wagner, Richard]
13/5/1849Wagner arrives in Weimar. He had been forced to flee from Dresden and in Weimar he attented a probe of his Tannhäuser that was conducted by Franz Liszt. Then news arrived that Wagner would be prosecuted and he left Weimar. [Wagner, Richard]
6/10/1853Liszt visits Wagner in Basel. With him was a group of supporters, among them Hans von Bülow. They came from Karlsruhe where the music festival had taken place and they stayed until Saturday. [Bülow, Hans von][Wagner, Richard]
17/2/1855Premiere of Piano Concerto No. 1 by Franz Liszt. It was performed in Weimar. Liszt was at the piano and Berlioz was the conductor. Liszt had written the main themes in a sketch book in 1830. [Berlioz, Hector]
20/4/1856Hans von Bülow asks Franz Liszt for the hand of his daughter Cosima. At first Liszt wouldn't give his blessing because he thought Bülow, with his strange moods and headaches, a scary person. He hoped that she would marry a nobleman. After Cosima's mother Marie d'Agoult declared herself against the marriage, Liszt changed his mind and gave his approval. [Agoult, Marie Christine Sophie de Flavigny, comtesse d'][Bülow, Hans von][Liszt, Cosima]
7/1/1857Premiere of Piano Concerto No. 2 by Franz Liszt. It was performed in Weimar. Liszt had dedicated it to his pupil Hans von Bronsart who was at the piano. Liszt was the conductor. 
14/10/1864Fransz Liszt and his daughter Cosima visit Emile Ollivier at St. Tropez. Listz's daughter Blandine was married to Ollivier, but she had died in 1862. The next day Liszt left for Rome and Cosima for Germany. [Liszt, Cosima]
26/6/1870Premiere of Wagner's "Die Walküre" at the Hoftheater in Munich. Wagner wanted to stage it in 1871, but Ludwig II of Bavaria was the legal owner of the piece and didn't want to wait. Wüllner was the conductor and Joachim, Brahms, Saint-Saëns and Liszt were in the audience. Wagner wasn't there and Ludwig also stayed away. He had decided to wait for the second performance so that he would be able to see "Das Rheingold", that would be staged again during the summer, and "Die Walküre" in the right order. [Bausewein, Kaspar][Brahms, Johannes][Joachim, Joseph][Saint-Saens, Charles Camille][Wagner, Richard]
22/5/1872The first stone is laid for Richard Wagner's Festspielhaus in Bayreuth. It took place on Wagner's 59th birthday. It had cost him much effort to find the funding for the theatre in which he wanted to perform his Ring. Fransz Liszt took part in the ceremony. [Wagner, Richard]
0/3/1875Festival in honour of Wagner at Makart's studio in Vienna. Franz Liszt played the piano. [Makart, Hans ][Wagner, Richard]
22/10/1885Franz Liszt celebrates his 74th birthday in Innsbruck. Present were Lina Schmalhausen, Bernard Stavenhagen, István Thomán and Conrad Ansorge. 
7/4/1886Franz Liszt performs for queen Victoria at Windsor Castle. He had played for her before. He was visiting London and caused much exitement when he visited several performances of his own works. 
19/7/1886Franz Liszt attends a concert in his honour at the Casino of Luxembourg. At the end of the event he played three of his own compositions. He was in bad health and it was his last public performance. the next day he left for Bayreuth. 
3/8/1886Funeral of Franz Liszt in Bayreuth. Liszt probably would have wanted to be buried elsewhere, but his daughter Cosima was living in Bayreuth and had quickly decided that he should be buried there. [Liszt, Cosima]
21/8/1886Franz Liszt arrives in Bayreuth. He had travelled to Bayreuth to attend the wedding of his granddaughter Daniele as well as the Festspiele. [Bülow, Daniela von]

Images

Plaque for Franz Liszt at the Music Academy, Budapest. A small Liszt Museum is located here.
Picture by Androom (27 Jan 2001)

 

Franz Liszt at the Piano, painted by Elisa Ransonnet-Villez (Liszt Museum, Budapest).
(1879)

 

"Ferenc Liszt" by Mihály Munkácsy (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest).
 

Bust statue of Franz Liszt at the Margaret Island, Budapest.
Picture by Androom (23 Aug 2002)

 

The mausoleum of Franz Liszt at the Stadtfriedhof in Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (24 Jan 2006)

 

Inside the mausoleum of Franz Liszt at the Stadtfriedhof in Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (24 Jan 2006)

 

In the house in Bayreuth where Franz Liszt died is now a small Liszt museum.
Picture by Androom (24 Jan 2006)

 

Bust of Franz Liszt in front of the house in Bayreuth where he died.
Picture by Androom (24 Jan 2006)

 

The statue of Franz Liszt at the Park an der Ilm, Weimar.
Picture by androom (21 May 2006)

 

The mausoleum of Franz Liszt at the Stadtfriedhof, Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (11 Feb 2011)

 

Statue of Franz Liszt in Eisenstadt.
Picture by Androom (23 Aug 2012)

 

The Villa Altenburg in Weimar where Franz Liszt lived from 1848 to 1861.
Picture by Androom (31 Jul 2016)

 

The Liszthaus in Weimar.
Picture by Androom (01 Aug 2016)

 

The bed of Franz Liszt at his house in Weimar.
Picture by Androom (01 Aug 2016)

 

Sources
• Bacharach, A.L. (ed.), Lives Of The Great Composers, Volume 2, Penguin Books, London, 1947
• Blunt, Wilfrid, The Dream King, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1973
• Gutman, Robert, Richard Wagner, Der Mensch, sein Werk, seine Zeit, Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, München, 1989
• Marek, George R., Cosima Wagner, Ein Leben für ein Genie, Knaur, München, 1993
• Prahacs, Margit, Franz Liszt, Briefe aus Ungarischen Sammlungen 1835-1886, Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1966
The Hector Berlioz Website: Berlioz and Liszt
Franz Liszt
Life of Franz Liszt - Wikipedia


Livry, Emma

Published: 1 Jan 2006
Last update: 10 Feb 2018