Wagner, Richard

COMPOSER (GERMANY)
BORN 22 May 1813, Leipzig - DIED 13 Feb 1883, Venezia: Palazzo Vendramin
REAL NAME Wagner, Wilhelm Richard
GRAVE LOCATION Bayreuth, Bayern: Villa 'Wahnfried' (in the garden)

Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig. The man who was officially his father, a clerk at the police court, died when he was very young. His mother soon married the painter Ludwig Geyer and possibly he was Wagner's real father. When he was seven the family moved to Dresden, where he received his first musical education at the Dresdner Kreuzschule. Geyer died when Wagner was only eight years old, but he had already inspired a taste for art in the boy.

Under the influence of Goethe and Shakespeare he wrote the tragedy "Leubald und Adelaide" at a very young age. He started a series of diaries around the age of twenty, already convinced of his own genius and his future fame. After attending performances of works by Weber and Beethoven he switched to music. In April 1829 he saw Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient as Leonore in Beethoven's "Fidelio" and he was deeply impressed.

He entered Leipzig University in 1831. After he obtained an engagement as choir director at the Würzburg theatre he started his opera "Die Feen" and he finished it in 1834. In 1836 he married the singer Minna Planer. He went to Königsberg with her to become musical director at the theatre, allthough at the time Minna was probably more wanted as a leading actress than Wagner was wanted himself. Soon afterwards the theatre went bankrupt and Wagner was left behind without payment. An engagement in Riga followed, but he spent too much money and in 1839 he had to flee from his creditors.

Wagner tried to find himself a place in the world of opera in Paris (1839-1842). Allthough he became friendly with the great Meyerbeer he failed and almost starved to death from poverty. Even so he finished his opera "Rienzi" and when it was performed in Dresden on October 20th, 1842 (with Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient singing) it was an overnight success. In 1843 it was followed by "Der Fliegende Hollander" ("The Flying Dutchman") and in that same year he was appointed Kapellmeister in Dresden.

Allthough Wagner had a stable income now, his debts rose to enormous heights because he continued to live far beyond his means. In his Dresden years he completed "Tannhäuser" (first performed on 19 Oct 1845) and "Lohengrin". The latter was rejected by the opera in Dresden and was first staged in Weimar in 1850. In 1848 he supported the revolution that was rising in Saxony. The revolution failed and where people like Bakunin were captured, Wagner managed to flee to Jena, to his friend Franz Liszt who had supported his work from an early stage. He had first met Liszt in 1841 in Paris. Wagner initially was little interested in Liszt's compositions, but at a certain point he realized that there was much depth in them. From that point the men were always eager to hear each other's compositions, even when their friendship became clouded by the constant demands of Wagner and by his affair with Liszt's daughter Cosima.

Wagner remained in exile until 1860 and during this time Lohengrin turned into a huge success. In 1850 in Zurich he wrote an anti-semitic piece on Jewishness in music which was partly an attack on Meyerbeer. In 1853 he first met Cosima Liszt, the young daughter of Franz Liszt. In Zürich he was supported by Mathilde and Otto Wesendonck and he lived in a cottage behind their villa near Lake Zürich. Mathilde (1828-1902) became his muse and his music to her poems resulted in the 'Wesendonck Lieder'. In 1858 his wife Minna intercepted a love letter to Mathilde and their liaison ended. It is unclear if they were lovers. In 1860 he was granted amnesty in Germany except for Saxony. In 1862 a full amnesty followed.

From 1864 onwards king Ludwig II of Bavaria supported him financially. This enabled the production of "Tristan and Isolde", "Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg", "Das Rhinegold" , and "Die Walküre". Wagner's influence on the king was regarded as dangerous and in combination with a personal scandal he was forced to leave Munich. This scandal was his liaison with Liszt's daughter, who had married his conductor and friend Hans von Bülow in 1857. Cosima bore Wagner a daughter in 1865 (Isolde) that was accepted by Von Bülow as his own. From 1866 onwards Wagner lived at Tribschen (near Lucerne) with Cosima. By the time he married her in 1870 they had three children. Their daughter Eva was born in 1867 and their son Siegfried was born in 1869.

Wagner devoted himself now to the completion of his epic work "Der Ring des Nibelungen", about a struggle between the gods and mankind. It consisted of four parts, "Das Rheingold", "Die Walküre", "Siegfried" and "Die Götterdämmerung". Under his direction a new theatre was built in Bayreuth (in Bavaria) where his complete Ring was first performed from 13 to 17 Aug 1876. Gounod, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, Saint-Saens and Liszt, they were all there to witness these first Bayreuther Festspiele. Judith Gautier (1845-1917) was also present and she was the master's muse during the event, allthough it's not clear if there affair was consummated or not. After the Festspiele Judith an intimate correspondence followed. Judith sent her letters to Wagner's barber Schnappauf, but after Cosima caught him burning some of the correspondence early in 1878, they had to put an end to the affair.

Wagner continued his writings on musical and political themes, among them 'racial purity'. In 1882 he completed his final opera "Parsifal" in Palermo. It was performed on 25 Jun 1882 in Bayreuth during the second Festspiele. The work had put a serious strain on Wagner and he died of a heart attack on 13 Feb 1883 in Venice. On the morning of his death he had an argument with Cosima after the announcement of a visit by Carrie Pringle, one of the 'flowermaidens' at the festival of 1882. Wagner withdrew to his study and the excitement probably caused the heart attack. Two days before his death he had dreamt of Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient and told Cosima that the women of his life had passed before his eyes.

Wagner was buried in the garden of his villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth. Cosima became the guardian of his work and managed the 'Festspiele' in Bayreuth. She survived him until 1930. His son Siegfried tried hard as a composer, but his opera's were little succesful. Siegfried preferred men above women, but pressed by Cosima he married the young Winnifred Williams, who bore him four children. A few months after his mother's passing away Siegfried died from a heart heart attack, like his father.

During his life Richard Wagner had several love affairs. Apart from his well known affairs with Judith Gautier and Mathilde Wesendonck he was involved with Jessie Laussot (1829-1905), Mathilde Maier (1833-1910) and Friederike Meyer. He also had a short liaison with Cosima's older sister Blandine and only after her death in 1862 he started his affair with Cosima.

Family
• Mother: Wagner, Johanna Rosina
• Daughter: Bülow, Isolde von
• Son: Wagner, Siegfried
• Daughter: Bülow, Eva von
• Wife: Liszt, Cosima (1870-, Luzern: Matthäuskirche)
• Wife: Wagner-Planer, Minna (1836-1866, Königsberg: Kirche von Tragheim)
• Sister: Marbach, Johanna Rosalie

Related persons
• had work performed by Bausewein, Kaspar
• was admired by Boito, Arrigo
• employed Brandt, Carl
• was sculpted by Breker, Arno
• cooperated with Bülow, Hans von
• was written about by Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
• influenced Cornelius, Peter
• was admired by Draeseke, Felix August Bernhard
• was visited by Draeseke, Felix August Bernhard
• was admired by Fantin-Latour, Ignace Henri Jean Théodore
• employed Fischer, Franz von
• cooperated with Friedrich-Materna, Amalie
• employed Gudehus, Heinrich
• was criticized by Hanslick, Eduard
• cooperated with Hiller, Ferdinand
• was admired by Holmès, Augusta
• employed Humperdinck, Engelbert
• was a friend of Klindworth, Karl
• was written about by Kolb, Annette
• was supported by Laube, Heinrich
• was the lover of Laussot, Jessie
• cooperated with Lehmann, Lilli
• was painted by Lenbach, Franz von
• was admired by Liszt, Franz
• was influenced by Liszt, Franz
• had work performed by Lorenz, Max
• admired Lüttichau, Ida von
• knew Makart, Hans
• is brother/sister of Marbach, Johanna Rosalie
• was admired by Mendès, Catulle
• was influenced by Meyerbeer, Giacomo
• was visited by Meysenbug, Malvida, Freiin von
• cooperated with Mottl, Felix
• met Parsons, Albert Ross
• detested Perfall, Karl Theodor Emanuel Freiherr von
• was supported by Porges, Heinrich
• was a friend of Pusinelli, Anton
• was a friend of Richter, Hans
• was admired by Rohde, Erwin
• admired Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Ludwig
• was influenced by Schopenhauer, Arthur
• admired Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine
• created works that weren't liked by Schumann, Clara Josephine
• knew Spyri, Johanna
• quarreled with Strauss, Franz Joseph
• was written about by Strobel, Otto
• knew Tausig, Karl
• had work performed by Tichatscheck, Joseph Aloys
• visited Viardot-Garcia, Pauline
• was influenced by Weber, Carl Maria von
• had a relationship with Wesendonck, Mathilde

Events
0/4/1829Wagner sees Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient in Beethoven's Fidelio. She played the part of Leonore and the sixteen years old Wagner was deeply impressed. [Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine]
25/12/1831Richard Wagner's "Concert Overture in d minor" is performed in Leipzig 
1/4/1837Richard Wagner obtains the position of musical director in Königsberg. It was a relatively unimportant position and he mostly obtained it because he had married the actress Minna Planer in 1836. Minna was engaged at the theatre in Königsberg. [Wagner-Planer, Minna]
20/10/1842Premiere of Richard Wagner's opera "Rienzi" in Dresden. It was a huge succes. Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was Adriano and Joseph Tichatschek was Rienzi. [Reissiger, Carl Gottlieb][Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine][Tichatscheck, Joseph Aloys]
2/1/1843Premiere of Richard Wagner's opera "Der Fliegende Holländer" in Dresden. The premiere was supposed to take place in Berlin but eventually it was in Dresden. Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was Senta. [Schröder-Devrient, Wilhelmine]
2/2/1843Richard Wagner is appointed Royal Court Conductor of Saxony 
0/12/1845Richard Wagner sees Jenny Lind in Berlin in "Don Giovanni" and in "Norma". [Lind, Jenny]
5/4/1846Richard Wagner conducts Beethoven's sixth symphony in Dresden. The performance took place at the Old Opera House. [Beethoven, Ludwig van]
16/2/1849Liszt conducts the premiere of Wagner's Tannhäuser in Weimar. An earlier version was first performed in Dresden in 1845. In 1849 Wagner was in exile in Switzerland. [Liszt, Franz]
13/5/1849Wagner arrives in Weimar. He had been forced to flee from Dresden and in Weimar he attented a probe of his Tannhäuser that was conducted by Franz Liszt. Then news arrived that Wagner would be prosecuted and he left Weimar. [Liszt, Franz]
16/3/1850Richard Wagner arrives in Bordeaux. He had been invited by Jessie Laussot to visit her and her husband. Soon he and Jessie became lovers. [Laussot, Jessie]
18/5/1850Richard Wagner returns to Bordeaux. He went to the Hôtel des 4 Soeurs. He wanted a confrontation with the husband of his mistress Jessie Laussot but he soon found out that Laussot and his wife had left the city. In June she sent him a message that she would never see him again. It seems they met again in 1876. [Laussot, Jessie]
0/5/1853Richard Wagner conducts several concerts in Zürich 
6/10/1853Liszt visits Wagner in Basel. With him was a group of supporters, among them Hans von Bülow. They came from Karlsruhe where the music festival had taken place and they stayed until Saturday. [Bülow, Hans von][Liszt, Franz]
10/10/1853First meeting between Richard Wagner and Cosima Liszt [Liszt, Cosima]
0/3/1855Richard Wagner conducts eight concerts in London. The concerts took place between March and May, 1855. 
0/7/1860Act Two of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde is performed at the house of Pauline Viardot. It was performed by Pauline Viardot, Richard Wagner himself and Karl Klindworth. Hector Berlioz and Marie Kalergis, in whose honour the event was organised, were present. [Berlioz, Hector][Klindworth, Karl][Viardot-Garcia, Pauline]
2/2/1861Ludwig II of Bavaria attends Wagner's opera "Lohengrin". Ludwig was much impressed. 
13/3/1861Premiere of Richard Wagner's "Tannhäuser" in Paris. Urged by the members of the Jockey Club, Wagner had added a ballet to his opera. However, Wagner let the ballet start immediately after the ouverture, while it was known that the gentlemen were only present from the second act because they first finished their diners. The performance was disturbed by booing. After three performances "Tannhäuser" was over in Paris. 
15/5/1861Richard Wagner attends the staging of "Lohengrin" at the Court Opera in Vienna 
1/11/1862Hans and Cosima von Bülow meet Richard Wagner in Leipzig. There was a concert where Hans von Bülow would play Liszt's new piano concert and Wagner would conduct the Tannhäuser ouverture and a new prelude to "The Meistersinger". Wagner's young friend Wendelin Weissheimer would also present his work. Wagner later stated in his autobiography that at this day he experienced his first feelings for Cosima and that he hardly noticed the music. [Bülow, Hans von][Liszt, Cosima]
26/12/1862The empress Elisabeth the first concert conducted by Richard Wagner in Vienna. It was the first time Wagner conducted a concert in Vienna. He didn't like conducting because it distracted him from composing, but he urgently needed the money. He also hoped to arrange a performance of "Tristan und Isolde" in Vienna. [Elisabeth von Bayern, Kaiserin von Österreich]
11/1/1863The empress Elisbeth attends the third Wagner concert in Vienna. She had also attended the first concert Wagner conducted in Vienna. She missed the second concert on 1 Jan 1863. [Elisabeth von Bayern, Kaiserin von Österreich]
28/11/1863Richard Wagner and Cosima Liszt become lovers. Wagner was staying in Berlin because Cosima's husband Hans von Bülow had asked him to attend a concert. When Von Bülow was busy with the repititions Wagner and Cosima made a coach ride during which they confessed to each other that they belonged together. That night Wagner was staying in Von Bülow's house. [Bülow, Hans von][Liszt, Cosima]
4/5/1864First meeting between Ludwig II of Bavaria and Richard Wagner 
10/4/1865Hans von Bülow conducts the first repetition of "Tristan und Isolde". On the same day his wife Cosima bore a daughter, that was named Isolde. Isolde's father was Richard Wagner, the composer of "Tristan and Isolde". [Bülow, Hans von][Bülow, Isolde von][Liszt, Cosima]
10/6/1865Premiere of Richard Wagner's "Tristan Und Isolde" in Munich. Hans von Bülow was the conductor. "Tristan und Isolde" was refused in Paris, Vienna and Karlsruhe because it would be 'impossible to perform'. The performance started at six and ended shortly before midnight. Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld was Tristan and his wife Malvina was Isolde. King Ludwig II of Bavaria was there. [Bülow, Hans von][Garrigues, Eugenia Malvina][Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Ludwig]
10/12/1865Richard Wagner is forced to leave Munich. His presence was unwanted because he was supposed to influence king Ludwig II, who had given a lot of money to Wagner. 
24/10/1867Wagner completes his opera "Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg" 
21/6/1868Premiere of Wagner's "Die Meistersinger von Nünberg". It was staged in Munich in the presence of King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Hans von Bülow was the conductor. Ludwig insisted that Wagner would sit next to him in the royal box. after the first act the public was very entousiastic and demanded to see the composer. But Wagner didn't show himself. Only after the last act he rose to accept the ovation of the public. This caused a schandal because it was considered inappropriate that a composer received the honours of the public standing next to the king. [Bausewein, Kaspar][Bülow, Hans von][Diez-Hartmann, Sophie][Strauss, Franz Joseph]
22/9/1869Premiere of Richard Wagner's "Das Rheingold" in Munich [Bausewein, Kaspar][Vogl, Heinrich][Vogl, Therese]
26/6/1870Premiere of Wagner's "Die Walküre" at the Hoftheater in Munich. Wagner wanted to stage it in 1871, but Ludwig II of Bavaria was the legal owner of the piece and didn't want to wait. Wüllner was the conductor and Joachim, Brahms, Saint-Saëns and Liszt were in the audience. Wagner wasn't there and Ludwig also stayed away. He had decided to wait for the second performance so that he would be able to see "Das Rheingold", that would be staged again during the summer, and "Die Walküre" in the right order. [Bausewein, Kaspar][Brahms, Johannes][Joachim, Joseph][Liszt, Franz][Saint-Saens, Charles Camille]
5/2/1871Wagner completes his opera Siegfried 
12/5/1871Richard Wagner announces to build his own theatre in Bayreuth. He didn't want to stage his "Ring" in Munich as originally planned because the Court Theatre was not fit for the purpose. This was reason enough for Wagner to build his own theatre. 
22/5/1872The first stone is laid for Richard Wagner's Festspielhaus in Bayreuth. It took place on Wagner's 59th birthday. It had cost him much effort to find the funding for the theatre in which he wanted to perform his Ring. Fransz Liszt took part in the ceremony. [Liszt, Franz]
0/9/1873Bruckner visits Wagner in Bayreuth. Bruckner asked Wagner if he could dedicate his third symphony to him and Wagner approved. 
28/4/1874Richard Wagner moves to his villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth 
0/3/1875Festival in honour of Wagner at Makart's studio in Vienna. Franz Liszt played the piano. [Liszt, Franz][Makart, Hans ]
13/8/1876Premiere of Wagner's "Ring" in Bayreuth. It was performed from August 13th to August 17th. Many illiustrious persons were present, among them Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany and King Ludwig II of Bavaria. [Friedrich-Materna, Amalie][Richter, Hans][Wilhelm I, emperor of Germany]
16/8/1876Premiere of Richard Wagner's opera "Siegfried" in Bayreuth. "Siegfried" is the third part of his "Ring des Nibelungen" that was fully performed for the first time. [Friedrich-Materna, Amalie]
19/4/1877Wagner completes the textbook of Parsifal 
5/11/1881Wagner arrives at the Hôtel des Palmes in Palermo. He had travelled from Munich to Verona and then from Napoli to Palermo. His family was with him and they occupied rooms 24, 25 and 26. 
13/1/1882Wagner completes Parsifal in Palermo 
15/1/1882Auguste Renoir sketches Richard Wagner in Palermo. Wagner didn't like sitting for him. Renoir later used the sketches for his oil painting of Wagner. 
28/3/1882Richard Wagner suffers a heart attack in Palermo. He survived the heart attack and on 2 April he was able to make a daytrip to Taormina. 
2/4/1882Richard Wagner visits Taormina. He had sufficiently recovered from his heart attack on March, 28th. His wife Cosima was with him. [Liszt, Cosima]
10/4/1882Richard Wagner and his family leave Acireale for Messina 
14/4/1882Richard Wagner and his family arrive in Naples 
25/6/1882Wagner's Parsifal is first performed in Bayreuth. Wagner himself conducted the last act of the first performance. It was Wagner's last work and it would be stage another sixteen times that year. [Friedrich-Materna, Amalie]
18/2/1883Richard Wagner is buried in the garden of his house Wahnfried in Bayreuth 
1/10/1903The Richard Wagner monument in Berlin is unveiled. It was created by Gustav Eberlein. The monument was commisioned by Ludwig Leichner, a manufacturer of cosmetics. 
24/12/1903First performance of Parsifal outside Bayreuth at the Metropolitan Opera in New York . The European copyright wasn't valid in the USA and the Metropolitan Opera in New York staged the opera against the wishes of Cosima Wagner. The MET used a publication of the opera by the publisher Schott. [Liszt, Cosima]
30/8/1923Hitler speaks at the Villa Schönberg in Zürich. The villa Schönberg was built on the spot where his idol Richard Wagner once lived. 
29/7/1951Opening of the first Festspiele in Bayreuth after the Second World War. After the Second World War, the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth stood under American command. After a while the Americans granted the Wagner family permission to resume the Festspiele. Winifred Wagner wasn't allowed to return to her post as director. She was succeeded by her son Wieland Wagner. [Wagner, Wieland][Wagner-Williams, Winnifred]

Images

The Wagner monument in Munich.
Picture by Androom (24-08-1996)

 

The grave of Richard and Cosima Wagner in the garden of the villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth, Bavaria.
Picture by Androom (25-08-1996)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner in Leipzig at the place where his birth house stood until 1886.
Picture by Androom (10 Feb 2005)

 

Socle by Max Klinger for a Wagner statue that was never realised. It was placed at the Klingerhain in Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (10 Feb 2005)

 

Bust of Richard Wagner at the Schwanenteich, Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (08 Feb 2005)

 

Richard Wagner, painted by Franz von Lenbach.
(1871)

 

Head of Richard Wagner in front of the Nibelungenhalle at the Drachenfels in Königswinter.
Picture by Androom (23 Apr 2005)

 

Bust of Richard Wagner in the garden of the Schönberg villa (near the Wesendonck villa). He lived there in a cottage next to the Wesendoncks.
Picture by Androom (18 Aug 2005)

 

The Villa Schönberg stands at the spot of the former Riegelhaus (or Asyl") where Richard Wagner lived and worked from 1857 to 1858. The Riegelhaus was owned by Otto and Mathilda Wesendonck who sold it in 1872. The present villa was built in 1882.
Picture by Androom (18 Aug 2005)

 

The house in Tribschen where Richard Wagner once lived is now a Wagner museum.
Picture by Androom (19 Aug 2005)

 

The house in Tribschen where Richard Wagner once lived is now a Wagner museum.
Picture by Androom (19 Aug 2005)

 

The house at Hadikgasse 72 in Vienna where Richard Wagner lived (1863-1864).
Picture by Androom (23 Aug 2005)

 

Plaque at the house at Hadikgasse 72 in Vienna where Richard Wagner lived (1863-1864).
Picture by Androom (23 Aug 2005)

 

The house at Graupa near Dresden where Richard Wagner lived. It is now a museum.
Picture by Androom (27 Aug 2005)

 

The couch on which Richard Wagner died in Venice is now in his house Wahnfried in Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (24 Jan 2006)

 

The house at Kapuzinerstrasse 40 in Würzburg where Richard Wagner lived in 1833.
Picture by Androom (01 Mar 2009)

 

The house at Kapuzinerstrasse 40 in Würzburg where Richard Wagner lived in 1833.
Picture by Androom (01 Mar 2009)

 

Richard Wagner statue by Arno Breker near the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (02 Mar 2009)

 

The grave of Richard Wagner in the garden of the villa Wahnfried in Bayreuth.
Picture by Androom (02 Mar 2009)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner at the Hotel Imperial in Vienna.
Picture by Androom (12 Aug 2010)

 

Head of Richard Wagner at the Wagner Kulturpfad in Graupa near Dresden, Saxony.
Picture by Androom (28 Aug 2012)

 

The statue of Richard Wagner by Richard Guhr at the Liebenthaler Grund near Liebenthal, Saxony.
Picture by Androom (28 Aug 2012)

 

Statue of Richard Wagner at the Tiergarten, Berlin.
Picture by Androom (26 Aug 2013)

 

The Richard Wagner statue in Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (29 Aug 2013)

 

The Richard Wagner statue in Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (29 Aug 2013)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner at the Palazzo Vendramin in Venice.
Picture by Androom (13 Feb 2016)

 

Plaque for Richard Wagner at the Palazzo Vendramin in Venice.
Picture by Androom (13 Feb 2016)

 

Café Lavena where Richard Wagner used to to go when he stayed in Venice.
Picture by Androom (15 Feb 2016)

 

Statue of Richard Wagner in Leipzig.
Picture by Androom (04 Aug 2016)

 

Sources
• Blunt, Wilfrid, The Dream King, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1973
• Desing, Julius, King Ludwig II - His Life - His End, 1976
• Eger, Manfred, Richard-Wagner-Museum Bayreuth, 1995
• Gutman, Robert, Richard Wagner, Der Mensch, sein Werk, seine Zeit, Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, München, 1989
• Marek, George R., Cosima Wagner, Ein Leben für ein Genie, Knaur, München, 1993
• Prahacs, Margit, Franz Liszt, Briefe aus Ungarischen Sammlungen 1835-1886, Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1966
• Reeth, Adelaïde van & Guido Peeters, Herinneringen in Steen, De Haan/Unieboek, Houten, 1988
Villa Wahnfried (Wagner Museum), Bayreuth
Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (editie 1909), 1909
Das Rheingold - Wikipedia
The Hector Berlioz Website: Berlioz and Wagner


Wagner, Siegfried

Published: 1 Jan 2006
Last update: 30 Nov 2018