Byron, George Noel Gordon

POET (ENGLAND)
BORN 22 Jan 1788, London: 22 Holles Street - DIED 19 Apr 1824, Missolonghi
GRAVE LOCATION Hucknall Torkard, Nottinghamshire: Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Ogle Street

Born into a noble but poor family, George Noel Gordon Byron's worldly prospects suddenly brightened when his father's nephew William (the heir of the fifth Lord Byron) died in 1794 (he was hit by a cannonball at the Battle of Calvi in Corsica). Now he succeeded as the sixth Lord Byron after the death of the fifth Lord in 1798.

The young Byron had a good time at Harrow (where he felt himself greatly attracted to a boy called Edlestone) and a lousy time at Trinity College, Cambridge. But allthough he didn't learn a lot there, he made many friends, among them Scrope Davies, Francis Hodgson and John Cam Hobhouse.

In 1807 his first poetry was published in "Hours of Idleness", but the critics were severe. He answered them in 1808 with his famous poem "Scottish Bards and English Reviewers". In the same year he entered the House of Lords, but soon he considered himself not suited for politics.

Together with his friend Hobhouse and his valet Fletcher he travelled through Greece and Turkey. On 3 May 1810 he swam the Hellespont from Sestos to Abydos as a tribute to Leander. In Albania they met Ali Pasha and especially after Hobhouse had returned to England Byron indulged himself in homosexual pleasures, in those days not uncommon in Greece, but a very dangerous habit in England (he would live a heterosexual life afterwards, until in his final days at Missolonghi in 1824 he once more became infatuated with a young boy).

Byron became famous as a result of his succesfull poems as well as his private life. In 1809 he had started the first canto of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. The first two canto's were published in 1812 and he immediately found himself famous. In the same year he had an affair with Lady Oxford and he met Annabella Milbanke. Byron proposed to her but was turned down. In 1814 his poem "The Corsair" sold 10,000 copies on the first day of publication.

It was his affair with lady Caroline Lamb that set London on fire. She was furious when he dumped her and she went out of her way to damage his reputation. Unfortunately, in 1814 Annabella Milbanke accepted his second proposal. Byron and his 'Princess of parallelograms' were totally incompatible and their marriage turned into a complete disaster.

Soon after the birth of their daughter Augusta Ada she left their house and they never saw each other again. By this time there were persistent rumours that Byron had had an incestuous relationship with his half-sister Augusta and the evidence is indirect, these rumours were almost certainly true and Annabella would haunt Augusta because of it in later years. It is even possible that Byron was the father of Augusta's daughter Elizabeth Medora.

Scorned by society and worried by financial debts, Byron left England in 1816 and never came back. In Geneva (and later in Italy) he befriended his fellow poet Shelley, who had eloped with the young Mary Godwin. When still in London he had met Mary's stepsister Claire, who had seduced him and carried his child. Their daughter Allegra only lived until her fourth year, but Byron was bored with Claire even before Allegra was born.

Byron continued to live in Italy, was often depressed, continued to write his poetry and had many affairs with local women. He lived from 1816 to 1819 in Venice, where he had affairs with Marianna Segati, his host's wife, and with Margerita Cogni, a baker's daughter.

After he sold his ancestral home Newstead Abbey in 1817 he was able to settle his debts and found himself a rich man. His liaison with the young countess Guiccioli (he met her in Venice in 1818) lasted for years and he moved to Ravenna to be near to her. In 1824 - now a rich man - he set sail to Greece to help the Greeks fight the Turks. He turned out to be a cool negotiator who was well aware of the rivalries between the many parties involved in the struggle against the Turks and carefully considered his moves.

Before he saw any military action he had a severe seizure on 15 February and fell seriously ill afterwards. He had trouble speaking now and was troubled by pains in the chest (The cause for these problems has never become clear). When he felt better he took a ride on 9 April 1824, but it started raining and he came back soaking wet. His condition became very serious and his doctors made things worse. Byron refused bleeding, but after they threatened him with loss of sanity if he kept refusing, he finally succumbed. He was bled several times and afterwards his condition detoriated quickly and he died on 19 April 1824, exactly two years after his daughter Allegra.

His tragic death instantly turned him into a hero in England and attracted the major attention to the Greek cause that had failed before (In 1827 Greece was freed from the Turks with the help of England).

Byron's greatest works of poetry are "Childe Harold" (1812-1818) and the satirical masterpiece "Don Juan" (1819-1824). He also wrote several plays: "Manfred" (1817); "Sardanapoulus (1821)"; "Cain" (1821); "The Two Foscari" (1821); "Heaven and Earth" (1821, unfinished). Other works: "The Bride of Abydos" (1813); "The Prisoner of Chillon" (1816); "Lament of Tasso" (inspired by a visit to Tasso's cell in Rome); "The Prophecy of Dante" (1821); "The Deformed Transformed" (1824).

Family
• Daughter: Byron, Allegra
• Daughter: Byron, Augusta Ada, Lady Lovelace
• Wife: Milbanke, Anna Isabella (1815-1816, Seaham Hall, Durham) (divorce)

Related persons
• visited Ali Pasha
• visited Baillie, Joanna
• was sculpted by Baily, Edward Hodges
• visited Beauharnais, Hortense de
• was influenced by Beckford, William
• was written about by Beecher Stowe, Harriet
• influenced Beets, Nicolaas
• has a connection with Blessington, Margaret Gardiner, countess of
• was admired by Blind, Mathilde
• was a friend of Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord
• was the lover of Byron, Augusta Mary
• has a connection with Caroline von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
• has a connection with Chaworth, Mary Ann
• was the lover of Clairmont, Claire
• was a friend of Davies, Scrope Berdmore
• was visited by Davy, Humphrey
• was admired by Delacroix, Eugène
• had work illustrated by Doré, Gustave
• employed Falcieri, Giovanni Battista
• met Godwin, William
• corresponded with Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
• was admired by Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van 't
• has a connection with Hunt, Leigh
• has a connection with Jackson, John
• was the lover of Lamb, Caroline
• influenced Mácha, Karel Hynek
• met Macri, Teresa
• was written about by Maurois, André
• has a connection with Mavrocordato, Alexander
• knew Medwin, Thomas
• influenced Müller, Wilhelm
• met Murchison, Roderick Impey
• was a friend of Murray, John
• was published by Murray, John
• was the lover of Oxford, Jane, Lady
• was admired by Reid, Thomas Mayne
• has a connection with Shelley, Mary
• was a friend of Shelley, Percy Bysshe
• was a friend of Trelawny, Edward John
• had a relationship with Webster Wedderburn, Frances
• was a friend of Webster Wedderburn, James
• knew Williams, Edward Ellerker
• knew Williams, Jane
• employed Zambelli, Antonio Tomasso Lega

Events
24/10/1805Lord Byron arrives in Cambridge. He had waited long and it was the last day that he was allowed to arrive. 
0/3/1809Lord Byron's "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers" published. It was a satirical poem that was first published anonymously. Later it became clear that Byron was the author. Afterwards he regretted part of it but he was unable to suppress the poem. 
0/3/1809Relations between Lord Byron and his guardian Lord Carlisle detoriate. They had never been on the best of terms. 
18/9/1809Lord Byron takes his seat in the House of Lords. He had come of age and was therefore allowed to take his seat. 
3/5/1810Lord Byron and Lieutenant Ekenhead swim across the Hellespont. They swam from Sestos to Abydos. It took Ekenhead, a marine officer, one hour and five minutes. Byron needed five minutes longer. 
0/7/1811Lord Byron settles at Newstead Abbey near Nottingham. He had returned from his travels through Greece, Turkey and other countries. 
20/1/1812Claire Clairmont sees Lord Byron attending a public reading. Her stepfather William Godwin had taken her to a lecture on Shakespeare by Coleridge. Byron was also attending the lecture. [Clairmont, Claire][Godwin, William]
0/3/1812The first two cantos of Lord Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage are published 
0/3/1812The start of the affair between Lord Byron and Caroline Lamb [Lamb, Caroline ]
21/4/1812Byron speeches at the House of Lords in favour of the Catholics. The speech was a succes and he received a 'roar of laughter'. 
18/5/1812Byron witnesses Bellingham's execution. John Bellingham had killed Prime Minister Spencer Perceval and was hung at Newgate Gaol. Byron had 'taken a window' for the execution. He went together with two school friends, Baillie and John Maddocks. Later he wrote in a letter to his friend Tom Moore 'I saw Bellingham launched into eternity'. 
14/8/1812Newstead Abbey is offered for sale. Newstead Abbey was the family seat of the Byrons and Lord Byron needed money. At Garroway's Coffee House bids could be left. Byron's friend Hobhouse was among the bidders but he stopped at 113.000 guineas. The bidding stopped at 113.500 guineas for the largest part and 13.000 guineas for the smaller part of Newstead Abbey. This was less than the minimum price and thus there was no sale. [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord]
10/10/1812Reopening of the rebuilt Drury Lane Theatre in London. It was rebuilt by James Wyatt and the prologue that was spoken was written by Lord Byron. 
12/10/1812Annabella Milbanke refuses Lord Byron's proposal for marriage. Byron had his proposal brought to her by Lady Melbourne. Annabella refused him, because she was afraid that Byron would never be the 'object of strong affection which would make me happy in domestic life'. She saw good things in Byron but she thought that his good qualities were hidden 'from the strangest perversion that pride ever created'. Byron wrote to Lady Melbourne: 'She deserves a better heart than mine. What shall I do - shall I advertise?' [Milbanke, Anna Isabella]
0/5/1813Lord Byron visits Leigh Hunt in prison. Hunt was locked up in Surrey Gaol because he had attacked the Prince of Wales in 1812 in his periodical The Examiner. His phrasings 'Adonis in Loveliness' and 'violator of his world' resulted in two years of imprisonment for him and for his brother. [Hunt, Leigh]
21/6/1813Lord Byron meets Madame de Staël during a diner. He considered her not the nicest but certainly the smartest woman that he had ever met. She was invited by the Whigs because she was supposed to be a liberal, but since she was banished by Napoleon she seemed on good terms with conservatives like Lord Liverpool. 
26/6/1813Augusta Leigh arrives in London for a visit to Byron. She had a good time with Byron and managed to cheer him up a little. Almost certainly they had an incestuous relation during the time she was under his roof and possibly the child that was born to her in 1814 was his. At the end of august she returned to her family in Newmarket. [Byron, Augusta Mary]
2/7/1813Byron's case against Claughton in Chancery Court. Around the same time he sat for a portrait by Thomas Philips. 
5/7/1813Lord Byron and Lady Caroline Lamb meet at Lady Heathcote’s waltzing party. At a certain moment Caroline picked up a knife. Byron suggested that she should strike at her own heart since she had already struck at his. She cried "Byron" and ran away. When other ladies tried to take the knife away from her she cut her hand. [Lamb, Caroline ]
26/9/1813Byron meets Southey in London 
2/10/1813First meeting between Lord Byron and William Godwin [Godwin, William]
0/11/1813Byron writes "The Bride of Abydos" 
0/12/1813Byron writes "The Corsair". He wrote it between 18 and 31 December and hardly changed anything afterwards. 
20/1/1814"The Corsair" by Lord Byron is published. On the day of publication 10,000 copies were sold. 
19/2/1814Byron and Hobhouse see Edmund Kean in "Richard III". After attending the play Byron is supposed to have said 'By Jove, he is a soul! Life - nature - truth without exaggeration or diminution'. [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord]
12/3/1814Byron and Hobhouse see Edmund Kean in "Hamlet" [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord]
16/4/1814"Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte" by Lord Byron is published anonymously 
0/5/1814Byron, Hobhouse and Moore see Edmund Kean in "Othello" [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord]
6/8/1814"Lara" by Lord Byron is published 
9/9/1814Lord Byron proposes marriage to Annabella Milbanke. He had been turned down by her in 1812 but this time she would accept him. [Milbanke, Anna Isabella]
15/9/1814Lord Byron receives Annabella Milbanke's acceptance of his proposal of marriage [Milbanke, Anna Isabella]
7/4/1815First meeting between Lord Byron and Walter Scott. It took place at Murray's office in Albemarle Street, London. 
0/4/1816Lord Byron and Claire Clairmont become lovers [Clairmont, Claire]
8/4/1816Lord Byron meets Benjamin Constant. It was at a party given by Lady Jersey. Augusta Leigh and John Hobhouse were present as well. Some of the guests avoided Byron, but Lady Jersey and Mercer Elphinstone were very kind to him. [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord][Byron, Augusta Mary][Constant de Rebecque, Benjamin]
14/4/1816Byron sees his half sister Augusta for the last time. She left to return to her family and Byron had a feeling that he would never see her again. On 25 April he would leave England forever. [Byron, Augusta Mary]
19/4/1816Lord Byron signs the separation from Annabella Milbanke. He was forced to sign in order to avoid a court case in which he might be accused of homosexual relations and of incest with his halfsister Augusta Leigh. [Byron, Augusta Mary][Milbanke, Anna Isabella]
27/4/1816Byron arrives in Ghent. It was 03.00 AM when they arrived at the Hotel des Pays Bays. Later that day he visited the cathedral and other popular spots. 
29/4/1816Lord Byron arrives in Antwerp. The next day he visited churches and museums. 
8/5/1816Lord Byron stays at the Hotel de Prague in Cologne 
27/5/1816Possible first meeting of Byron and Shelley. It is not entirely certain that they never met before. Byron had just arrived in Switzerland in the company of John Polidori. [Shelley, Percy Bysshe]
6/6/1816Lord Byron rents the villa Diodati. He rented it for six months for 125 louis. On 10 June he moved from hotel Dejean to the villa. 
16/6/1816Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Godwin, Claire Clairmont, Lord Byron and John Polidori tell each other ghost stories. They told each other stories all night and decided that each of them would write a ghost story. Mary Shelley wrote "Frankenstein" and John Polidori wrote "The Vampyre". [Clairmont, Claire][Shelley, Mary][Shelley, Percy Bysshe]
27/6/1816Byron plucks a sprig of Gibbon's acacia. This happened in Lausannem where Edward Gibbon had completed his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire". He had gone there with Shelley and they entered the gardens of Gibbon's former summer residence. Gibbon had walked outside into the dark after completing his work and was relieved that his task was done. At the same time he feld very lonely. By the time Byron and Shelley walked in the garden, the house was a ruin and Gibbon had been dead for over twenty years. [Shelley, Percy Bysshe]
20/8/1816'Monk' Lewis adds a codicil to his testament. He did this at the Villa Deodati, Byron's rented home at the Lake of Geneva. Byron, Shelley and Polidori acted as witnesses. In the codicil he obliged his heirs to live in Jamaica for three months of every year, to see if the slaves at his properties were treated well. He also prohibited slaves to be sold. He would die on 14 May 1818, shortly after such an inspection on Jamaica. [Shelley, Percy Bysshe]
12/10/1816Byron and Hobhouse arrive in Milan. They stayed until November 3, 1816. [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord]
6/11/1816Byron and Hobhouse arrive in Verona [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord]
10/11/1816Byron and Hobhouse arrive in Venice [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord]
1/11/1821Byron arrives in Pisa with his mistress Teresa Guiccioli 
20/11/1821Shelley introduces Thomas Medwin to Lord Byron. Medwin had arrived in Pisa in November 1821. They got along well and he often dined with Byron and his circle. They also went pistol shooting. When Medwin left Pisa in April 1822, Byron organised a party for him. [Medwin, Thomas][Shelley, Percy Bysshe]
16/12/1821Byron shoots a small twig in two from 14 feet distance. This was written in his diary by Edward Williams, who was a witness. Mary Shelley and Jane Williams were also there. [Shelley, Mary][Williams, Edward Ellerker][Williams, Jane]
18/8/1822Trelawny burns Shelley's body on the beach. Shelley's body was found on the beach and buried there. It was not allowed to move it because of the risk of diseases. A huge metal furnace was brought to the beach and his remains were cremated. The ashes were taken to the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. Trelawny snatched Shelley's heart from the flames. Leigh Hunt wanted to keep it, but after some pression he gave it to Mary Shelley. Lord Byron couldn't stand it and swam back to his nearby ship before the burning of the corpse started. [Hunt, Leigh][Shelley, Mary][Shelley, Percy Bysshe][Trelawny, Edward John]
3/10/1822Lord Byron arrives in Genoa. He took up residence in Casa Saluzzo. At the time Mary Shelley also lived in Genoa. [Shelley, Mary]
24/7/1823Byron and Trelawny leave for Greece [Trelawny, Edward John]
15/2/1824Lord Byron has a violent convulsion. He recovered only slowly. 
19/4/1824Lord Byron dies in Missolonghi, Greece. That same day he had translated two letters, one from the French into the English and one from the Greek into the English. 
4/5/1824The ship with Byron's body arrives in the harbour of Zante (Zakynthos). It wasn't clear yet that his body would be returned to England and Athens was considered as a possible place of burial. 
5/5/1824Byron's body is taken to Lazaretto 
15/5/1824Mary Shelley receives the news that Lord Byron has died in Greece. In her diary she wrote "Albè-the dear, capricious, fascinating Albè". The Shelleys had always called him Albè (for LB, Lord Byron). She forgot all her objections to him in the shock of the moment. [Shelley, Mary]
17/5/1824Lord Byron's memoirs are burnt. It was to protect his reputation (and that of his publisher John Murray) after his death and took place in the drawing room of John Murray in Albermarle Street, London. Present were Murray, John Cam Hobhouse, Thomas Moore. Several people had read them before they were burnt and Mary Shelley stated there she had read them in Venice and that there was nothing much in it. [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord][Murray, John]
9/7/1824Mary Shelley visits Lord Byron's corpse before the funeral takes place [Shelley, Mary]
12/7/1824Lord Byron's funeral procession in London. A huge procession moved through London. A smaller procession moved to Hucknall, Nottinghamshire in four days. In the first coach were Colonel Leigh, Captain Byron, Hanson and Hobhouse. In the second coach were Burdett, Kinnaird, Bruce, Ellice, Stanhope and Travanion. In the third coach Moore, Rogers, Campbell and others. Mary Shelley saw the procession when it passed her house moving towards Highgate Hill. Caroline Lamb broke down once more when she saw the funeral processon of the former lover. [Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Lord][Lamb, Caroline ][Shelley, Mary]
14/10/1825Leigh Hunt returns to London from Italy. The periodical The Liberal that he had set up for Lord Byron hadn't been a succes. After four issues Byron withdrew his support. Hunt travelled through Italy with his family and returned to England. On this dat he reached London on a steamship. [Hunt, Leigh]
25/1/1830William MacReady tries out Byron's "Werner" in Bristol 
0/12/1832Teresa Guiccioli visits Newstead Abbey. It was in the spring of 1832. She visited Newstead Abbey and went alone inside the Church of Hucknall Torkard. Even before the door could be closed she threw herself on the stone above the crypt where Byron was buried. She stayed there for an hour. 
8/4/1851Last meeting between Lady Byron and Augusta Leigh. They met at the White Hart, Reigate Town. They hadn't seen each other for twenty years. Annabella expected a confession from Augusta that Byron had never returned to her because of Augusta. Augusta had not long to live and only wanted a reconciliation. Annabella detested Augusta allthough she pretended to act in her best interests. The meeting failed. On 26 April Augusta wrote once more to Annabella that she had never set up Byron against her. [Byron, Augusta Mary][Milbanke, Anna Isabella]
15/6/1938Lord Byron's tomb is openend. That afternoon and evening Hucknall Parish Church was closed for the public. In the tomb the coffins of Byron and his daughter Ada were found. After Byron's coffin was openend it became clear that his body was reasonably intact. There was still hair on his head, body and limbs. Parts of his body were skeletized. There were holes in his head and his breast where his brains and bowels were removed. The tomb was photographed, the body wasn't. [Byron, Augusta Ada, Lady Lovelace]

Images

Memorial stone for Lord Byron in Westminster Abbey (The booklet normally isn't there).
Picture by Androom (13 Aug 1997)

 

"George Gordon, 6th Lord Byron" by Richard Westall (National Portrait Gallery, London).
(1813)

 

Portrait of Lord Byron by Thomas Phillips.
(1813)

 

January 2003: Lord Byron exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery, London.
Picture by Androom (25 Jan 2003)

 

"The Funeral of Shelley" by Louis Éduard Fournier. E.J. Trelawny, Leigh Hunt and Lord Byron watch the burning of Shelley's body. In reality Byron had left the scene before the burning took place.
 

The Villa Deodati in Cologny near Genève. Lord Byron lived here in 1816.
Picture by Androom (04 Dec 2007)

 

The entrance to the Villa Deodati in Cologny near Genève. Lord Byron lived here in 1816.
Picture by Androom (04 Dec 2007)

 

The Hotel Anglettere in Lausanne. Here Lord Byron wrote "The prisoner of Chillon".
Picture by Androom (05 Dec 2007)

 

Plaque for Lord Byron at the Hotel Anglettere in Lausanne. Here Byron wrote "The prisoner of Chillon".
Picture by Androom (05 Dec 2007)

 

Statue of Lord Byron at Hucknall Torkard.
Picture by Androom (22 Jun 2009)

 

Tablet commemorating Lord Byron in front of The Church of St. Mary Magdalene at Hucknall Torkard.
Picture by Androom (22 Jun 2009)

 

The Church of St. Mary Magdalene at Hucknall Torkard where Lord Byron was buried.
Picture by Androom (22 Jun 2009)

 

The entrance to the crypt where Lord Byron was buried inside the Church of St. Mary Magdalene at Hucknall Torkard.
Picture by Androom (22 Jun 2009)

 

The original bed in Byron's sleeping room at Newstead Abbey.
Picture by Androom (21 Jun 2009)

 

Portrait of Lord Byron at the Keats-Shelley House in Rome.
Picture by Androom (23 Jan 2010)

 

Monument for Lord Byron at the Villa Borghese Park, Rome.
Picture by Androom (26 Jan 2010)

 

The Palazzo Lanfranchi where Lord Byron lived in Pisa.
Picture by Androom (06 Feb 2011)

 

The spot near St. Mary's Church, Harrow, where the young Lord Byron used to hang out.
Picture by Androom (29 May 2014)

 

The Bridge of Sighs, as Lord Byron named it, in Venice.
Picture by Androom (15 Feb 2016)

 

Lord Byron first stayed at this location in Ravenna after he arrived in that city.
Picture by Androom (13 Feb 2017)

 

Lord Byron first stayed at this location in Ravenna after he arrived in that city.
Picture by Androom (13 Feb 2017)

 

Burgage House in Southwell where Lord Byron visited Julia Leacroft.
Picture by Androom (11 Aug 2017)

 

Burgage Manor in Southwell where Lord Byron lived with his mother from 1803 to 1808.
Picture by Androom (11 Aug 2017)

 

Burgage Manor in Southwell where Lord Byron lived with his mother from 1803 to 1808.
Picture by Androom (11 Aug 2017)

 

Lord Byron briefly lived at 76 St James Street, Nottingham.
Picture by Androom (11 Aug 2017)

 

Lord Byron briefly lived at 76 St James Street, Nottingham.
Picture by Androom (11 Aug 2017)

 

Plaque at the Villa Dupouy near Livorno where Lord Byron lived in 1822.
Picture by Androom (17 Feb 2018)

 

The Villa Webb in Bagni di Lucca where Lord Byron stayed in 1822.
Picture by Androom (18 Feb 2018)

 

Plaque at the Villa Webb in Bagni di Lucca where Lord Byron stayed in 1822.
Picture by Androom (18 Feb 2018)

 

Sources
• Chapman, John S., Byron and the Honourable Augusta Leigh, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1975
• Stephen, Leslie [Sir], Sidney Lee [Sir] [Editors], The Dictionary of National Biography, From the Earliest Times to 1900, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1960
• Vincent, Benjamin, Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, and Universal Information, Ward, Lock & Co, London, 1906
• Eisler, Benita, Byron, Child of Passion, Fool of Fame, Knopf, New York, 1999
• Feldman, Paula R. and Diana Scott-Kilvert, The Journals of Mary Shelley, 1814-1844, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1987
• Grosskurth, Phyllis, Byron, The Flawed Angel, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1997
• Gunn, Peter, My dearest Augusta, Bodley Head, London, 1968
• Howell, Margaret J., Byron tonight, A Poet's Plays on the 19th Century Stage, Springwood Books, Windlesham, 1982
• Hunt, Leigh, The Autobiography of Leigh Hunt, (A New Edition), Smith, Elder & Co, London, 1891
• Jones, Frederick L., Maria Gisborne & Edward E. Williams, Their Journals and Letters, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1951
• Longford, Elizabeth, The Life of Byron, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1976
• MacCarthy, Fiona, Byron, Life and Legend, John Murray, London, 2002
• Marchand, Leslie A., Byron: a Biography, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1957
• Marchand, Leslie Alexis (ed.), Lord Byron, Selected Letters and Journals, Belknapp Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982
• Marchand, Leslie A., Byron, A Portrait, Futura Publications Limited, London, 1976
• Minta, Stephen, On a Voiceless Shore, Byron in Greece, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1998
• Quennell, Peter, Byron, The Years of Fame - Byron in Italy, Collins, London, 1974
• Roe, Ivan, Shelley: The Last Phase, Hutchinson & Co, London, 1955
• Spark, Muriel, Mary Shelley, Constable, London, 1988
• St Clair, William, The Godwins and the Shelleys, Faber and Faber, London, 1990


Cadinot, Jean Daniel

Published: 1 Jan 2006
Last update: 2 Sep 2018