BORN 25 Mar 1867, Parma - DIED 16 Jan 1957, New York City, New York: The Bronx|
GRAVE LOCATION Milano: Cimitero Monumentale
Arturo Toscanini came from a modest family of Jewish descent.
He studied at the conservatory in Parma under Leandro Caranini
and he studied composition with Giusto Dacco. When several conductors
were unable to perform he conducted Verdi´s "Aida" without music
or notes on 30 Jun 1886.|
He was an early admirer of Richard Wagner and under his direction the first performance of "Götterdämmerung" by an Italian company took place. On 21 Jun 1897 he married Carla DeMartino. The marriage lasted until her death in 1951, but it was unhappy and Toscanini had numerous affairs.
From 1898 to 1893 he was manager of the Scala in Milan, where he brought many opera's to Italy for the first time, among them Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg" (1898) and "Siegfried" (1899). He supported Enrico Caruso and Fyodor I. Shalyapin early in their careers. From 1906 to 1908 he worked again for the Scala, but his enemies there forced him to resign.
He was the leader of the Metropolitan Opera in New York from 1908 to 1915. There he had a passionate affair with star singer Geraldine Farrar. During the First World War he conducted at the front and included German works, to the horror of the public.
In 1927 he gave his first radio concert and from 1928 to 1936 he was the musical director of the New York Philharmonic. In 1929 he conducted at the festspiele in Bayreuth for the first time. During the next years he became like an uncle to the Wagner children, but after the nazi's became involved in the organisation of the festival he refused to return. Until 1937 he performed at the festival in Salzburg. In 1937 he broke off all relations with Furtwängler because he suspected him of sympathizing with the nazi's.
NBC had created an orchestra especially for the maestro that he worked with for seventeen years. After the Second World War he returned to Italy. He gave his last performance on 4 Apr 1954.
Toscanini had a son by Rosina Storchio, the first Madam Butterfly. He had also affairs with Lotte Lehmann, Herva Nelli, Alma Gluck, Lucrezia Bori and Cesina Ferrani. His affair with Ada Mainardi, whom he had met in 1920, started in 1933 but only came to light when a large number of his letters to her was auctioned in 1995.
was the lover of Farrar, Geraldine
cooperated with Hempel, Frieda
has a connection with Príhoda, Vása
cooperated with Wagner-Williams, Winnifred